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the field of study that examines patterns of growth, chance, and stablility in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.
reasons to study lifespan development
- 1. to raise children successfully
- 2. to gain insights into social policy issues
- 3. to better understand human nature in general.
involves the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep.
involves the growth and change intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior
involves the development of emotions, personality, and relationships with others
the study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span
the way in which individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life
conception to birth
first two years of life
pre school period
2 to 5 or 6 years old
6 to about 12 years
approximately 12 to 20
20 - 40 years
40 to 65 years
65 years and older
7 key assumptions about the lifespan perspective
- 1. development is a lifelong process
- 2. development is a multidirectional process
- 3. development involves both gain and loss
- 4. development is characterized by lifelong plasticity (the capability to change in response to positive or negative environmental influences)
- 5. development is shaped by historical/cultural contexts
- 6. development is mutiple influenced
- 7. understanding development requires multi disciplinary studies
naturalistic observation (advantage and disadvantage)
- advantage: natural setting
- disadvantage: conditions not controlled
structured observation (advantage and disadvantage)
(in lab; experimental)
- disadvantage: can't generalize to natural settings
- advantage: conditions controlled
cross sectional design
- more than 1 cohorts or age group studied
- 1 time of testing
- studying age differences at any one time
- less than 1 cohort
- +1 time of testing
- study changes across time in one cohort
changes which occur due to age
- born in one historical context
- changes due to differences in society
- disadvantage of cross-sectional design
time of measurement effects
- take place at time of data collection
- disadvantage of longitudinal design
segments of chromosomes
each GENE is a segment of DNA that codes for..
the production of one particular protein
genes affect development and behavior through..
the manufacture of proteins
- building blocks of the bodys cells
- others regulates the cells functioning
DNA's information (genes)
"translated into flesh and blood"
genes are the basic..
unit of heredity in all living things
long threadlike molecules, made up of 2 strands of DNA
the human being has __ chromosomes packaged in __ pairs in every cell
2 members of each chromosome pair arre of the same general ____ & _____.
size and shape
genes of the same type
carries the biochemical instructions for the formation and functioning of an organism in packages known as genes
23rd pair of chromosome determines
an individuals sex
females have two large sex chromosomes called..
males have one X chromosome and ..
a smaller Y chromosome
the prescence of the Y chromosome triggers..
the manufacture of male sex hormones which create male physical characteristics
gametes (germ cells, sex cells)
reproductive cells that contain only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body
mothers sex cells
process of cell division in which sex cells mature, reducing the number of chromosomes from 23 pairs to 23 individual chromosomes
all female sex chromosomes are
the male sex chromosome could be
either X or Y (XY)
the male sex cells bear either
an X or Y chromosome
the male sperm determines
the sex of the child
the process of cell division in which body cells replicate; the chromosomes of each new cell are identical to the original cell
in the formation of egg and sperm (meiosis), 23 pairs of chromosomes are shuffled randomly, with chance determining which member of each pair is selected (8.4 million possibilities)
the process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to the other
a change in a section of DNA (some random, spontaneous errors, and environmental influences)
- develop from the same fertilized ovum, or zygote.
- 100% genetic relatedness
- twins originate when two ova are released and each is fertilized
- 50% genetic relatedness
the underlying genetic material we inherit from our parents
the observable expression of the genotype, including bodily characteristics and behavior
every aspect of the individual and his or her surroundings other than genes themselves.