Developmental Psych #1

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Developmental Psych #1
2012-03-09 03:20:09
developmental Psych

developmental psych #1
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  1. lifespan development
    the field of study that examines patterns of growth, chance, and stablility in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.
  2. reasons to study lifespan development
    • 1. to raise children successfully
    • 2. to gain insights into social policy issues
    • 3. to better understand human nature in general.
  3. physical development
    involves the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep.
  4. cognitive development
    involves the growth and change intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior
  5. socio-emotional development
    involves the development of emotions, personality, and relationships with others
  6. personality development
    the study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span
  7. social development
    the way in which individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life
  8. prenatal period
    conception to birth
  9. infancy
    first two years of life
  10. pre school period
    2 to 5 or 6 years old
  11. middle childhood
    6 to about 12 years
  12. adolescence
    approximately 12 to 20
  13. early adulthood
    20 - 40 years
  14. middle adulthood
    40 to 65 years
  15. late adulthood
    65 years and older
  16. 7 key assumptions about the lifespan perspective
    • 1. development is a lifelong process
    • 2. development is a multidirectional process
    • 3. development involves both gain and loss
    • 4. development is characterized by lifelong plasticity (the capability to change in response to positive or negative environmental influences)
    • 5. development is shaped by historical/cultural contexts
    • 6. development is mutiple influenced
    • 7. understanding development requires multi disciplinary studies
  17. naturalistic observation (advantage and disadvantage)
    • advantage: natural setting
    • disadvantage: conditions not controlled
  18. structured observation (advantage and disadvantage)
    (in lab; experimental)
    • disadvantage: can't generalize to natural settings
    • advantage: conditions controlled
  19. cross sectional design
    • more than 1 cohorts or age group studied
    • 1 time of testing
    • studying age differences at any one time
  20. longitudinal design
    • less than 1 cohort
    • +1 time of testing
    • study changes across time in one cohort
  21. age effects
    changes which occur due to age
  22. cohort effects
    • born in one historical context
    • changes due to differences in society
    • disadvantage of cross-sectional design
  23. time of measurement effects
    • historical
    • take place at time of data collection
    • disadvantage of longitudinal design
  24. genes
    segments of chromosomes
  25. each GENE is a segment of DNA that codes for..
    the production of one particular protein
  26. genes affect development and behavior through..
    the manufacture of proteins

    • building blocks of the bodys cells
    • others regulates the cells functioning
  27. DNA's information (genes)
    "translated into flesh and blood"
  28. genes are the basic..
    unit of heredity in all living things
  29. chromosomes
    long threadlike molecules, made up of 2 strands of DNA
  30. the human being has __ chromosomes packaged in __ pairs in every cell
    • 46
    • 23 pairs
  31. 2 members of each chromosome pair arre of the same general ____ & _____.
    size and shape
  32. autosomes
    genes of the same type
  33. DNA
    carries the biochemical instructions for the formation and functioning of an organism in packages known as genes
  34. 23rd pair of chromosome determines
    an individuals sex
  35. females have two large sex chromosomes called..
    X chromosomes
  36. males have one X chromosome and ..
    a smaller Y chromosome
  37. the prescence of the Y chromosome triggers..
    the manufacture of male sex hormones which create male physical characteristics
  38. gametes (germ cells, sex cells)
    reproductive cells that contain only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body
  39. mothers sex cells
    eggs (ova)
  40. fathers sex cells
  41. meiosis
    process of cell division in which sex cells mature, reducing the number of chromosomes from 23 pairs to 23 individual chromosomes
  42. all female sex chromosomes are
    X (XX)
  43. the male sex chromosome could be
    either X or Y (XY)
  44. the male sex cells bear either
    an X or Y chromosome
  45. the male sperm determines
    the sex of the child
  46. mitosis
    the process of cell division in which body cells replicate; the chromosomes of each new cell are identical to the original cell
  47. random assortment
    in the formation of egg and sperm (meiosis), 23 pairs of chromosomes are shuffled randomly, with chance determining which member of each pair is selected (8.4 million possibilities)
  48. crossing over
    the process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to the other
  49. mutation
    a change in a section of DNA (some random, spontaneous errors, and environmental influences)
  50. monozygotic twins
    • develop from the same fertilized ovum, or zygote.
    • 100% genetic relatedness
  51. dizygotic twins
    • twins originate when two ova are released and each is fertilized
    • 50% genetic relatedness
  52. genotype
    the underlying genetic material we inherit from our parents
  53. phenotype
    the observable expression of the genotype, including bodily characteristics and behavior
  54. environment
    every aspect of the individual and his or her surroundings other than genes themselves.