fluid and lytes

Card Set Information

Author:
jksrd
ID:
140669
Filename:
fluid and lytes
Updated:
2012-03-09 11:02:20
Tags:
jksrd
Folders:

Description:
fluid and lytes scnsc
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jksrd on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Approximately what %age of the total body weight is water?
    A – 55
    B – 60
    C – 80
    D – 75
    B – 60
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following is most likely to have the highet %age of LBM?
    A – 25yom
    B – 55yom
    C – 25yof
    D – 55yof
    A – 25yom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following is not a fxn of body water
    A – sufficient hydration status is required to maintain balance regulated by inner ear
    B – has a key role in circulatory system
    C - serves as a substrate for metabolic fxn
    D – fxn to maintain temp
    A – sufficient hydration status is required to maintain balance regulated by inner ear
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Total body water is roughly distributed as follows between ICF and ECF:
    A – 1/3 ICF; 2/3 ECF
    B – 1/3 ECF; 2/3 ICF
    C – 1/2 ICF; 1/2 ECF
    D – 3/4 ICF; 1/4 ECF
    B – 1/3 ECF; 2/3 ICF
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. If abnormal accumulation of fluid occurs in the ICF compartment ot body cavities, the following is most likely to occur
    A – edema
    B – hypotension
    C – liver congestion
    D – renal dysfxn
    A – edema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The primary cation of ECF is
    A – Cl-
    B – Na2+
    C – K+
    D – Phos
    B – Na2+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The primary cation of ICF is
    A – Phos
    B – K+
    C – Cl-
    D – Na2+
    B – K+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The primary anion of ICF is
    A – Na2+
    B – Phos
    C – K+
    D – Cl-
    B – Phos
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The primary anion of ECF is
    A – Cl-
    B – K+
    C – Na2+
    D – Phos
    A – Cl-
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Non electrolyte components of body fluids that d/n dissociate in solution include all of the following except:
    A – NaCl
    B – glucose
    C – urea
    D – creatinine
    A – NaCl
  11. Under normal circumstances the following is true:
    A – the ratio of anion:cation is always changing
    B – the body maintains a higher level of anions:cations
    C – the body maintains a higher level of cations:anions
    D – electroneutrality is maintained by anions = cations
    D – electroneutrality is maintained by anions = cations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The component of plasma that is the principle determinant of colloid oncotic pressure is:
    A – interstitial fluid
    B – Na++
    C – ECF
    D - albumin
    D - albumin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Osmolality is defined a:
    A – normal oncotic pressure
    B – the # of osmotically active particles per kg of solvent
    C – having all ‘lytes wnl
    D – the # of osmotically active particles per liter of solvent
    B – the # of osmotically active particles per kg of solvent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The normal range for osmolality is:
    A – 290-310 mOsm/L
    B – 270-290 mOsm/L
    C – 100 mOsm/L
    D – 250-270 mOsm/L
    A – 290-310 mOsm/L
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. In addition to osmosis the regulation of body fluid compartments also occurs via all of the following except:
    A – Na-K pump (maintains ICF and ECF)
    B – filtration (the transfer of water and dissolved substances from a region of high pressure to region of low p pressure via hydrostatic pressure
    C – hypoventilation
    D – diffusion (the continual movement of molecules among each other in liquids or gasses)
    C – hypoventilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Maintaining the composition and volume of body fluid wnl is the fxn of:
    A - kidney, heart, lungs, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland
    B - kidney, heart and lungs
    C – pituitary gland, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland
    D – kidneys
    A - kidney, heart, lungs, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. ADH is an integral component of fluid homeostasis because as [ADH] increases,
    A – renal water retention stays constant
    B – calcitonin increases
    C – renal water retention increases
    D – renal water retention decreases
    C – renal water retention increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The majority of sensible losses of water occur via
    A – GI tract
    B – urine
    C – skin
    D – lungs
    B – urine (1200-1500 mL/d), lungs – 400 mL/d, skin - 500-600 mL/d, GI tract – 100-200 mL/d
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Considering the lyte composition of bodily fluids, a pt that has losses of NG suction of ~2L/d would likely benefit from the replacement of ___ to maintain homeostasis
    A – bicarb
    B – phos
    C – Cl-
    D – ca++
    • C – Cl- (gastric contents are rich in cl-, small bowel,
    • pancreatic secretions are alkaline and high in bicarb)
  20. Potential causes of a fluid deficit include all of the following except:
    A – excessive GI losses
    B – third spacing
    C – hypertensive emergency
    D – polyuria
    C – hypertensive emergency (3rd spacing = shift of fluid from vascular space into a portion of the body which is not easily exchanged w/ the rest of the ECF. This is an example of when fluid deficit d/n necessarily mean hydration. Polyuria is seen in DKA, GI losses seen with n/v/d/fistula and drainage tubes/suction)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. potential causes of fluid overload include all of the following except
    A – steroid therapy
    B – heart failure
    C – cirrhosis
    D – hyperventilation
    D – hyperventilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. This classification of diuretics (including furosemide) may lead to increased urinary excretion of l;ytes including Ca++, mag, and particularly K+;
    A – proton pump diuretics
    B – statin diuretics
    C – sodium diuretics
    D – loop diuretics
    D – loop diuretics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. this diuretic is known for conserving K+
    A - niacin
    B – aldactone
    C – ADH
    D – thiazide
    B – aldactone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. In the setting of critical illness or injury, a pt displays dec urine output, hypotension, tachycardia, high urine specific gravity and osmolality, elevated crit, poor skin turgor, with minimal, if any changes in body wt. The clinician should consider:
    A – developing renal failure
    B – impending ARDS
    C – fluid overload
    D – third spacing
    D – third spacing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. All of the following therapies are considered SOC for the trx of 3rd spacing except:
    A – hyperbaric chamber
    B – IV fluids
    C – transfusion
    D – correction of the underlying cause
    A – hyperbaric chamber
  26. In interpreting ABG (arterial blood gas); it is important to recognize that the following pHrange is considered wnl:
    A – 7.35-7.45
    B – 6.5-7.5
    C – 7.25-7.35
    D – 7.0-7.1
    A – 7.35-7.45
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. In ABGs, < __ is considered acidosis and > ___ is considered alkalaosis
    A – 7.0; 7.1
    B – 6.5; 7.5
    C – 7.25; 7.35
    D – 7.35;7.45
    D – 7.35;7.45
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Steps to interpreting ABG
    • 1) access alkalosis (pH >7.45) or acidosis (pH < 7.35)
    • 2) assess pCO2(respiratory) and HC03 (renal) to determine if respiratory or metabolic d/o
  29. On an ABG, an abnormal pC02 generally indicated a primary or compensatory __d/o:
    A – respiratory
    B – ‘lyte
    C – metabolic
    D – renal
    A – respiratory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. On an ABG, an abnormal HC03 generally indicated a primary or compensatory __d/o:
    A – respiratory
    B – renal
    C – metabolic
    D – ‘lyte
    C – metabolic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Compensation for metabolic d/o occurs via the __ and takes approximately __ hours
    A – renal; 12-24
    B – lung; 12-24
    C – renal; 48-72
    D – lung; 48-72
    B – lung; 12-24
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Side effects of acidosis may include the following:
    A – decreased tissue perfusion
    B – HTN
    C - ‘lyte abnormalities, namely K+ AND decreased tissue perfusion
    D – ‘lyte abnormalities, namely K+
    C - ‘lyte abnormalities, namely K+ AND decreased tissue perfusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. A normal anion gap (the [] of unmeasured ions in the blood) is ___ mEq/L:
    A – 15-20
    B -10-12
    C – 4-8
    D – 0-4
    B -10-12
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Anion gap calculation
    • Na- (Cl+HCO3). Can use serum C)2 to substitute for bicarb.
    • Most common causes of anion gap acidosis are ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis (shock) renal failure. Less common causes include methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and salicylate ingestion.
  35. Normal anion gap (hyperchloremic) acidosis may be caused by all of the following except:
    A – diarrhea
    B – use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    C – excessive vomiting
    D – high output fistula
    C – excessive vomiting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A metabolic acidosis w/ elevated anion gap may be caused by the following:
    A – renal failure
    B – diarrhea
    C – thiamine deficiency
    D – renal failure and thiamine deficiency
    • D – renal failure and thiamine deficiency
    • Thiamine is essential for normal glc metabolism, in its absence, lactic acid is produced leading to lactic acidosis.
  37. A common cause of metabolic alkalosis is
    A – excessive licorice intake
    B – high NGT output
    C – excessive ingestion of baking soda
    D – antifreeze ingestion
    B – high NGT output
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Diuretics should be used judiciously in part to prevent the acid base d/o known as:
    A – auto-alkalosis
    B – renal tubular alkalosis
    C – diuretic induced acid-base d/o
    D – contraction alkalosis
    • D – contraction alkalosis
    • Volume depletion is also referred to as this d/t overall dehydration or overuse of diuretics. The hypovolemia that develops decreases real tubule perfusion, that in turn increases the proximal absorption of bicarb in the renal tubules leading to inc plasma bicarb []. Additionally, the decrease in renal perfusion stimulates bicarb reabsorption
  39. The following ‘lyte disturbance can cause a deficit of hydrogen ions in the ECP, precipitating an alkalosis
    A – hyperphosphatameia
    B – hyperkalemia
    C - hyperchloridemia
    D – hypokalemia
    D – hypokalemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. In providing PN to a pt w/ metabolic alkalosis, the clinician should pay careful attention to the provision of salts as:
    A – phosphates
    B – Cl-
    C – acetates
    D – bicarb
    C – acetates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Respiratory acidosis occurs when
    A – Cl- containing salts are provided in excess
    B – lactic acid levels are above normal
    C – renal failure leads to an accumulation of acid
    D – ventilation is inadequate to remove C02
    D – ventilation is inadequate to remove C02
  42. When providing nutrition support to a pt w/ respiratory acidosis, the following should be considered
    A – pulmonary enteral formulas are usually beneficial in this population
    B – metabolic cart studies have little use in this population
    C – total kcal administered ate likely to have more effect than kcal derived solely for CHO
    D –CHO kcal are to be minimized
    C – total kcal administered ate likely to have more effect than kcal derived solely for CHO
  43. Conditions associated with causing respiratory acidosis include all of the following except:
    A – hypokalemia and/or hypophosphatemia
    B – obesity
    C – hyperphosphatemia
    D – narcotic analgesia
    C – hyperphosphatemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by an increased stimulation of respiration. Conditions that may cause this include all of the following except:
    A – pregnancy
    B – compromised lung fxn
    C – anxiety attacks
    D – excessive alkali ingestion
    D – excessive alkali ingestion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. An important fxn of Na is
    A – an essential component of digestive juices
    B – to promote nitrogen balance
    C – to maintain serum osmolality and fluid volume
    D – lyte transport system for many lytes
    C – to maintain serum osmolality and fluid volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Na is largely regulated by this organ and hormone:
    A – liver, aldactone
    B – liver, somatostatin
    C – pancreas, cck
    D – kidneys, aldosterone
    D – kidneys, aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The ___ is essential in accessing the cause and subsequently tx a low na
    A – phos
    B – Arterial blood gas
    C – Cl-
    D – serum osmolality
    D – serum osmolality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. IV NS contains __ mEq of Na/L:
    A - 160
    B – 154
    C – 77
    D – 100
    B – 154
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Hypernatremia is always associated with a ___ state:
    A – hypotonic
    B – hypertonic
    C – isotonic
    D – euvolemic
    B – hypertonic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Calculate the free water deficit of a 70 kg man with a serum sodium of 158:
    A – 4.8 L
    B – 9.6 L
    C – 7.2 L
    D – 12.5 L
    A – 4.8 L
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Water deficit calculation
    H20 deficit (L) = 0.6 x wt (kg) x [1 – (140/measured Na+)]
  52. Calculate the sodium deficiency of a 58 kg female w/ a serum na+ of 122 (in mEq)
    A – 626
    B - 1142
    C – 947
    D – 812
    A – 626
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Na+ deficit formula
    Na_ deficit (mEq) = (140 – meas Na+) x [0.6 x wt(kg)]
  54. The depletion combined w/ rapid cellular influx of the flowing ‘lytes is characteristic of refeeding syndrome
    A – phos, mag, k+
    B – Ca++, K+, phos
    C – phos, mag, na+
    D – phos, Ca++, Na+
    A – phos, mag, k+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. One should consider the potential for refeeding syndrome when assessing the following population
    A – abused or neglected pts
    B – GI or ENT cancer pts
    C – pts 1/ a 5-7 day hx of n/v w/ limited po intake
    D – all of the above
    D – all of the above
  56. The lyte that is integral to maintaining cell volume, pH, enzyme function, neuromuscular/cardiac fxn and cell growth is
    A – Na+
    B – K+
    C – Cl-
    D – Phos
    B – K+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, ileus, EKG changes and even paralysis can occur with this lyte abnormality
    A – hypernatremia
    B – hyperphosphatameia
    C – hypoglycemia
    D – hypokalemia
    D – hypokalemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Hyperkalemia may occur d/t:
    A – renal failure
    B – rhabdo
    C – acidosis
    D – all of the above
    D – all of the above
  59. The following statements describe characteristics of phos except:
    A – the majority of total body phos exists in ECF
    B – it is essential for normal nerve and muscle fxn
    C – it is the main ICF anion
    D – it is important for many metabolic pathways
    A – the majority of total body phos exists in ECF
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Hypophosphatemia can result in all of the following except for:
    A – increased muscular excitability
    B – decreased levels of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate
    C – respiratory failure
    D – CNS dysfxn
    A – increased muscular excitability
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. An elevated phos is usually the result of:
    A – both renal insufficiency and cellular destruction, as in trauma or w/ certain meds
    B – renal insufficiency
    C – liver dysfxn
    D – cellular destruction, as in trauma or w/ certain meds
    A – both renal insufficiency and cellular destruction, as in trauma or w/ certain meds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. It is not uncommon for pancreatitis to precipitate this ‘lyte abnormality
    A – Ca++
    B – Ca++ and Mag
    C – Mag
    D – Na
    B – Ca++ and Mag
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Aside from inadequate GI absorption and refeeding syndrome, this is also a common cause of hypomagnesemia
    A – renal tubular necrosis
    B – steven Johnson syndrome
    C – DKA
    D – Addison’s dz
    C – DKA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Causes of hypermagnesemia in a healthy, adequately hydrated, non stressed pt with normal kidney fxn may include
    A – pica
    B – excessive laxative use
    C – significant ingestion of calcium supplements
    D – underlying abscess
    B – excessive laxative use
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Low [serum ca++] stimulate the release of this hormone which increases bone resorption, stimulates renal conservation of ca++ and activates cit D which increases GI absorption of Ca++
    A – PTH
    B - CCK
    C – aldosterone
    D – calcitonin
    A – PTH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. In response to elevated [serum ca++], the __ releases __ horomone, which inhibits bone resorption
    A – kidney, aldosterone
    B – hypothalamus, aldoseterone
    C - parathyroid gland, PTH
    D – thyroid, calcitonin
    D – thyroid, calcitonin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Adjust the calcium for a pt w/ an albumin of 2.4 and a Ca++ of 6.9
    A – 8.2
    B – 7.9
    C – 8.5
    D – 7.6
    A – 8.2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Causes of hypocalcemia can include all of the following except
    A – decreased vit D and/or PTH activity
    B – massive soft tissue damage, as with trauma or infection
    C – bone cancer
    D – side effect of multiple blood transfusion
    C – bone cancer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Adjusted calcium calculation
    [(4.0 – meas albumin)* 0.8)]+ measured calcium = adjusted ca++
  70. In the absence of excessive exogenous provision of calcium, in a pt w/ normal renal fxn the most common cause(s) for hypercalcemia is
    A – hyperparathyroidism
    B – hypothyroidism
    C – bone cancer
    D – hyperparathyroidism and bone cancer
    D – hyperparathyroidism and bone cancer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview