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What is foraging?
The term given to the ways in which animals search for food
What is important to an animal when foraging?
That the energy gained is greater than the energy lost or else the animal will soon die
Give an example of an animal that uses filter feeding
A simple search pattern in animals is when the animal moves about in a _____ pattern until they find food?
Why is random searching energy efficient?
As it tends to increase the overall area covered by the animal and therfore increases its chances of finding food
In the experiment with Planaria why:
Are 10 hungry Planaria selected?
Are they put into two petri dishes containing A - liver in the centre or B - glass beads in the centre
Is the experiment repeated?
Is the experiment repeated in the dark?
- Using a number of organisms increases reliability. Hunger ensures feeding behaviour
- A - experiment and B - control
- Increases reliability
- Shows whether the animal senses a chemical from food or is seeing it
Bees perform a ______ _______ back in the hive?
The orientation and length of their waggle dance communicates the ________ and _______ of a good food source?
Ants leave the colony and wander about back and forth searching for food. What does this meandering ensure?
That they look for food as close to the colony as possible
What does an ant do as soon as it finds food?
It makes its way back to the colony, marking it's trail with scent
Random searching is an example of _______ (unlearned) behaviour?
Higher animals generally show more complicated foraging behaviour consisting of both _______ and _______ behaviour?
What is the hunting strategy of a:
- Emits high pitched sounds and uses echo location to find the position of flying insects
- Capable of high speed over short distances - "runs down" prey
- Well camoflaged, stalks prey using stealth
When is foraging economical?
When the benefits (energy gained) outweigh the costs
To be economical an animal must forage...?
How can energy be expended?
- Looking for food = search time
- Catching food = pursuit time
- Preparing and eating = handling time
- Avoiding predators while foraging
What factors affect foraging?
- Size of prey
- Density of prey
- Risk of injury
What are the two types of competition?
What is interspecific competition?
Competition between members of different species
When two different species occupy the same ecological niche one of the species will use the resources more efficiently and reproduce more efficiently, eventually driving the other species to extinction. What is this called?
The competitive exclusion principle
Give an example of interspecific competition?
Grey squirrels vs red squirrels
What is intraspecific competition?
Competition between members of the same species for the same resource
Why is intraspecific competition more intense than interspecific competition?
As the members of the same species are competing for exactly the same resources
What is territoriality?
The behaviour which involves compeition for territories
What do males use when fighting for territory without having to use real aggression?
Social signals - a display (eg birds give an auditory warning or visual signal)
The greater the food supply the ______ territories there will be in a given area?
Most aggressive behaviour occurs at the ______ of its territory?
What are the advantages of having your own territory?
- Safe place to breed
- Access to food (especially for young)
- Spaces out the population
- The energy expended in marking, patrolling, defending is more than made up for by the energy saved as competition is reduced to a minimum
What are two examples of social behaviour?
- Dominance hierarchy
- Co-operative hunting
What is dominance hierarchy?
It is a rank/pecking order within a social group
In feeding, what do the dominant animals eat _____ and get _____ share of food?
Why do subordinate animals stay within the social group?
As they gain more food in the group than by foraging alone
What kind of things ensures that a dominant individual keeps his rank?
Aggressive gestures and threat displays that make it look larger or fiercer than it's opponent
What kind of gestures will a subordinate individual send to a the dominant one?
- Lowering it's eyes and head
- Covering it's teeth
- Lowering it's ears, fur and tail
What are the advantages of a dominance hierarchy?
- Energy is conserved
- Serious injury is usually avoided
- Experienced leadership for the whole group is guaranteed
What is co-operative hunting?
When animals hunt in a social group (pack). They communicate with each other to co-ordinate the hunt
What kind of stratagies are used in co-operative hunting?
- "running down strategy" - follow a prey to the point of exhaustion
- "ambush strategy" - predator hides in cover before attacking prey
What are the advantages of co-operative hunting?
- Allows predators to kill larger prey animals
- Net gain of energy is greater than by foraging alone
- The subordinate animal will gain more food than it would be foraging alone