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Convert between F and C (when C = 0, F = 32)
T_{F} = ^{9}/_{5}T_{C} + 32

Energy of electron jumping
 E relates to Z^{2}/n^{2}, where Z = nuclear charge
 E = constant (1/n_{f}^{2}  1/n_{i}^{2})
 So, jump from higher initial ni = more E, farthest = most energy

Quantum numners
number of e in a level
 Number of e in an level = 2n^{2}
 First QN = n = average radius, level
 Second QN = l = n1> 0
 Third quantum number = ml = +/1 all of l values
 4ths = ms = spin
 L = shape, 0 = s, 1 = p, 2 = d, 3 = f
 ml = axis in shape, for l = 0, ml = 0 = sphere
 for l = 1, ml = 1, 0, 1 = 3 lobes for p
 Each lobe = 2 electrons
 So, s = 2, p = 6, d = 10

Z effective, periodic trends
 Zeff = nuclear pull = core e + protons = 2 + protons so Z effective increases as go right, and decreases down
 EA, IE, EN all increase as you go right and up
 Atomic radius = opposite

Series for absorption
Photoelectric effect
 To n=2 = Balmer
 To n = 1 = Lyman
 To n = 3 Paschen
 hv (photon) = work + KE

Radioactive Decay
 Remember charge and mass must match on each side
 Alpha decay = losing helium
 Beta decay = losing electron, so neutron converted to proton
 Positron decay = losing positive electron so proton converted to neutron

Equilibrium constant
Forward, reverse rate
Keq Change
Qrx
Volume
 Keq = P/R at eq
 forward rate = k1[R], reverse = k2[P]
 So, Keq = k1/k2
 Stoichimetric coeff = exponents
 Keq only changes with temperature, nothing else
 Qrx = P/R at any old time
 Be careful of volume with problems, doesn't always cancel in P/R

How to solve Keq problem
When to ignore +x and x
 Always set up as + and x, solve for Keq
 Note, adding up E components in gas proble
 Ignore x if,
 all reactants and Keq = <10^{3}
 all products and Keq = >10^{3}
 R and P and K = 1

Complex equilibirum
LeChatleir's
 Happens if product of 1 rxn = reactant of second
 Multiple coeff of 1 rxn so numbers match, and do Keq^{n} to get new Keq for the altered one
 Next to get whole Keq multiply this new Keq x other rxn's Keq
 LeChat; rxn goes back to eq if add or change something. Consider heat, endo exo, moles of gas etc

Molar solubility
Ksp
Common Ion Effect
 MS = true measure of solubility = max moles per volume
 Ksp = solubility product = [P1][P2]
 Solve like Ice box, +x, x, but also, coeff = exponents
 x itself = molar solubility
 if question asks for moles dissolved after eq, do n times coeff, b/c x is in solubility/mole
 CIE = like reverse le chatlier's, can represent in ICE box

Arhenius Acid, BL, Lewis
Neutral Water, 14
Ka
Kb
Conj pair
 Arhenius A = produces H_{3}O in water
 BL = proton doner
 Lewis A = lone pair acceptor
 Neutral at 25 C, pH = pOH, 7 = 7
 Ka, larger = higher P/R = better acid
 pka = log Ka
 Kb, larger = better base
 pkb = logKb
 For conjugate pair, pKa + pKb = 14

Strong, weak, very weak acids, bases
Typical strong acids, bases
Haloacid trend
Oxyacid anatomy
 Strong, K>1, pka<0
 Weak, 10^{14}<K<1, 0<pka<14
 Veryweak, K < 10^{14}, pka > 14
 Same trend for bases, except, Kb and pKb
 Strong acids = oxacids and haloacids
 Strong bases = carbides (LiButyl), amides (Li Dia, NR_{2}), alkoxides, hydrides, hydroxides
 Haloacids, opp of FONClBrISH, I>Br>Cl>F
 Oxyacid, more O, more EN central atom = more acidic
 C.A.Ph.AlcAlpha, 5,10.15.20

Logarithms
Equation for pH when you know pKa and HA
Equation for pOH when you know pKb and A
 log (axb) = loga + logb
 log (a/b) = loga  logb
 log 2 = .3
 log 3 = .48
 pH = 1/2pKa  1/2log[HA]
 pOH = 1/2pKb  1/2log[A]
 note, HA or A must be > Ka or Kb
 and pK must be 2<pK<12

pH and pka
Amino acids
HH equation
 if pH < pKa, protonated, conj acid presides
 if pH > pKa, deprotonated, conj base presides
 AA, C.A., pka = 23, so deprot, NH3, pka = 910, prot
 if conj a and conjb present
 pH = pKa + log([A]/[HA])

Buffer range
Recipe for buffer
 Buffer range when A = HA of conjugate pair
 But also, range in pH = + and 1 from pKa
 Since HH says pH = pKa + log([A]/[HA]), then that means between when A/HA = 10/11/10
 Recipe; 1/2 HA + 1/2A of conj pairs OR
 1/2 A + 1SA OR 1/2 HA + 1 SB
 SA and SB will react completely, should be unrelated to original acid or base
 Pick HA or A with pka etc near pH you want

Titrations, SA + SB
pH before titration
pH before eq point
pH at eq point
pH after eq point
 SA + SB, equivalence = when equal moles added = pH 7 aways.
 SA into WB or SB into WA
 if second, when 1/2 equivalent added = buffer, at 1 equivalent, pH > 7 because produce all conjugate base
 opposite for SA into WB
 To find pH of weak acid before titration = 1/2pKa  1/2log[HA]
 Before eq point, near buffer zone, use HH. At exactly 1/2 eq point, pH = pKa
 At eq point, pH = 1/2(pka + pH titrant)
 After eq point, pH = 14  pOH, pOH = log(molarity of SB * each new ml added/total liquid added so far)

Indicators
 Indicators, HIND > H+ + IND
 Treat like HA and A of buffer
 Color changes at eq point
 pH solution = pKaind +log[Ind/Hind]
 Choose pkA indicator that is + or 1 from equivalence point of acid and base titrating

Best ideal gas
van der waals gas law
 Best ideal gas = decrease collisions= low P, increase temp so IMF overcome
 (P+an^{2}/V^{2})(Vnb)=nRT, so Pressure usually less or more depending on repel or attract, and V is usually less
 Usually real gas behaves in a way to fall short of any predictions of Ideal Gas Law

Avogadro's Law
Boyle's Law
Charle's Law
Partial pressure
liquid pressure
 V/n = V/n
 PV=PV
 V/T = V/T
 PP = mole fraction x total pressure
 LP, difference in heights = density x gravity x change h
 absolute = Patm + pgh

Gas speed, kinetic energy, trends
root mean squared speed
Diffusion, effusion, iffusion
Isotropic enrichment
 1/2mv^{2} = 3/2RT
 Use R as 8.3 if includes speed
 v2/v1 = aqrt(m1/m2) = sqrt(T2/T1)
 rms speed = sqrt (3RT/m)
 lighest gas diffuses fastest
 effusion, gas withmore conc, lighest = fastest
 Can separate isotopes based on weight, lightest effuses first


