Arteries

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jhermanson
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14078
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Arteries
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2010-04-12 19:58:44
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Cardiovascular arteries
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Anatomy 3611
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  1. Ventricular Contraction
    systole
  2. Ventricular relaxation
    diastole
  3. Typical patter of blood vessels:
    heart-artery-arteriole- capillary-venule-vein-heart
  4. Pressure in arteries is _____. Pressure in capillaries and in veins is ______.
    High, low
  5. Arterioles serve to __________ pressure.
    reduce
  6. The heart pumps blood through _______.
    vessels
  7. Arteries are likea soft rubber hose maintaining a __________ flow of blood. The pressue is high during ________. During _________ the contraction of distended arteries provides some pressure.
    pressurized, systole, diastole
  8. Exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide occurs in the _____________ in the lungs
    capillaries
  9. _______________ are tubular organs with thick walls comprised of three layers.
    Blood vessels
  10. The innermost layer of blood vessels; an edothelium continuous with the lining of the heart
    Tunica intima
  11. Provides ability of Tunica intima to expand and recoil
    internal elastic lamina
  12. The middle layer of blood vessels; smooth muscle and elastin
    Tunica media
  13. The smooth muscle of the tunica media is under ____________ innervation
    autonomic
  14. The outer layer of blood vessles; connective tissue; extermal elastic lamina
    Tunica exterma AKA adventitia
  15. Tunica means _______. Think of as a "turtle-neck sweater." A capillary wearing 3 turtle-neck sweaters is _______.
    coat, an artery
  16. Capillaries consist of only
    endothelium
  17. Continuous Capillaries
    gases (O2 and CO2), water lipids
  18. Fenestrated Capillaries
    molecules, peptides (hormones), etc
  19. Sinusoid Capillaries
    "open space", proteins and cells, liver and spleen
  20. High pressure tubes, large amounts of elastin for stretch.
    -expand to receive blood
    -when ventricles relax, they recoil and pump more
    -Eg) pulmonary trunk and aorta
    Elastic Arteries
  21. Most arteries, mid-sized, mostly tunica media with think smooth muscle
    Muscular arteries
  22. Tiny vessels, mostly smooth muscle, bp is regulated by _________ of the vessels.
    Arterioles, diameter
  23. Sides of exchange of gases, nutrients, fluid, etc. Lumen is just larget enough to allow blood cells to squeeze through.
    Capillaries
  24. Veins have: (Versus Arteries)
    -_________ CT
    -_____ muscle
    -Walls are __________
    -Have __________ lumens
    -Medium sized veins have valves to ________________ of blood and aide circulation
    -Large veins, like vena cava, have longitudinal ________________ in tunica externa
    • more
    • less
    • thinner
    • larger
    • prevent backflow
    • smooth muscle
  25. Location of the ascending aorta
    within pericardium (middle mediastinum)
  26. The first branches off of the aorta are
    the right and left coronary artery
  27. The arch of the aorta is above the pericardium in the _______________________
    superior mediastinum
  28. There are 3 branched off of the __________________
    arch of the aorta
  29. The first branch of the aortic arch
    brachiocephalic trunk
  30. A trunk is ___________ before it branches
    an artery
  31. The brachiocephalic trunk branches into:

    - the right ______________ artery
    - the _____________________ artery which supplies the head
    • subclavian
    • right common carotid
  32. The second branch of the aortic arch
    left common carotid
  33. The third branch off of the arch of the aortia
    left subclavian artery
  34. The branching patterin off of the arch of the aorta is/is not symmetrical
    IS NOT
  35. The arch continues as the ________________ or thoracic aorta
    descending
  36. The descending aorta is in the ___________________ and becomes the ____________ aorta.
    poserior mediastinum, abdominal aorta
  37. The abdominal aorta bifurcates into right and left ______________________ arteries, which then branch into _____________________________ arteries.
    right and left common iliac, internal and extermal iliac
  38. Systemic Circuit

    1) Oxygenated blood is pumped from the ________ atrium to the _____ ventricle and then to the _______.
    2) Blood passes from the ___________ into elastic arteries and then into _________ arteries before entering _______.
    3)Blood in _______________ eneters systemic capillaries for exchange of gas and nutrients.
    4)Deoxy blood exits capillary beds into ___________ and then into ____________
    5) Deoxy blood is conducted to either the ______________ or _______________ and then enters the ______ atrium.
    • 1) left, left, aorta
    • 2) aorta, muscular, arterioles
    • 3) arterioles
    • 4) venules, veins
    • 5) superior or inferior vena cava, right
  39. Pulmonary Circuit:

    6) Blood flows from ______ atrium to the _______ ventricle and then is pumped into the __________.
    7) the _______________ conducts deoxy blood into pulmonary arteries to the ________.
    8) The blood passes through smaller and smaller arteries before entering _____________ for gas exchange.
    9) oxy blood exits the lungs bia a series of progressively larger veins that merge to form the ____________.
    10) blood enters the _________ ventricle from the ________ atrium. The cycle repeats
    • 6) right, right, pulmonary trunk
    • 7) pulmonary trunk, lungs
    • 8) pulmonary capillaries
    • 9) pulmonary veins
    • 10) left, left
  40. The common carotid artery splits to become the ____________ and _____________ arteries.
    internal and external carotid
  41. The _____________ carotid artery branches first and has many branches. It supplies mainly the face.
    external
  42. The ____________ carotid artery supplies the anterior and middle of the brain.
    Internal
  43. The __________artry supples the posterior of the brain.
    Vertebral
  44. The vertebral artery is a branch off of the ____________ artery, and it travels through _____________________ of cervial vertebrae.
    subclavian, transverse foramina
  45. The internal carotid and vertebral arteries unite to form ____________.
    cerebral arterial circle AKA circle of willis
  46. The internal carotid artery branches to form the _________ and ___________ arteries
    anterior and middle cerebral
  47. The right and left vertebral arteries join to form the ___________ artery.
    basilar
  48. The basilar artery splits into the _______________ arteries
    posterior cerebral
  49. The two anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the _____________________ artery.
    Anterior communicating
  50. The two posterior cerebral arteries connect to the middle cerebral arteries by the __________________ arteries.
    posterior communicating arteries
  51. The subclavian artery becomes the __________ artery as it passes the first rib.
    axillary
  52. The axillary artery becomes the _______________ artery as it passes the _______________ muscle.
    brachial, teres major
  53. The brachial artery split to become the __________ and _____________ arteries.
    radial and ulnar
  54. The ______________ artery is a branch off of the brachial artery. It runs deep to supply to extensor muscles of the arm.
    deep brachial
  55. The _______________________ artery is a branch off of the ulnar artery
    common interosseus
  56. The radial and ulnar arteries anastomose to form these arches in the palm of the hand
    superficial and deep palmar arches
  57. Arteries branching from the brachial artery are called ____________ arteries.
    Collateral
  58. In case of a blockage of the brachial artery in the elbow, blood will continue to reach the forearm by ________.
    collateral arteries
  59. Arteries from the radial or ulnar arteries are called ____________ arteries
    recurrent
  60. Collateral and recurrent arteries anastomose to form ________________
    collateral circulation
  61. The abdominal aorta birfucates to form the ______ and _________ arteries
    right and left common iliac
  62. The common iliac arteries again bifurcate in the pelvis as the ______ and __________ arteries
    internal and external iliac arteries
  63. The exernal iliac artery that passes under the inguinal ligament
    femoral artery
  64. the femoral artery gives off a branch called the _______________ artery. Also caleld the profunda femoris, which supplies hamstring muscles
    deep femoral
  65. The femoral artery passes from the the ________ to the _________ side of the thigh.
    anterior to posterior
  66. A hole in the Adductor magnus muscle
    Adductor Hiatus
  67. The femoral artery behind the knee
    Popliteal artery
  68. Collateral circulation around the knee = ___________ arteries
    genicular (genu = knee)
  69. The popliteal artery splits into the ____ and ____________ ________ arteries.
    anterior and posterior tibial arteries
  70. The anterior tebial supplies the _____ compartment of the leg (___________ muscles)
    anterior, extensor
  71. The posterior tibial artery supplies the ______ compartment of the leg (_______ muscles)
    posterior, flexor
  72. The __________ ____________ aRrtery forms when the anterior tibial artery passes into the dorsum of the foot.
    Dorsalis pedis
  73. A line from medial to lateral malleolus divides the _______ tibial and ____________ ______.
    anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis
  74. The Dorsalis pedis artery terminates as the ___________ artery.
    Arcuate
  75. The arcuate artery sends perforating arteries to anastomose when arteries in the _______ foot.
    plantar
  76. The posterior tibial artery gives off a branch = ____________ artery, which supplies the peroneus longus and brevis muscles
    Peroneal (fibular)
  77. The posterior tibial artery branches in the plantar surface of the foot = _____ and _____________ arteries, which anastomose to form the plantar arch
    Medial and lateral plantar arteries
  78. The aorta in the thorx is called the __________ or thoracic aorta, which is found in the __________ mediastinum.
    Descending, posterior
  79. The thoracic aorta gives off ______________ arteries that supply intercostal muscles
    posterior intercostals
  80. The _______________ arteries on each side of the sternum are branches off of the ______________ arteries.
    Internal thoracic, subclavian
  81. Internal thoracic arteries give off ________________ arteries, which supply intercostal muscles.
    Anterior intercostal
  82. The Anterior and posterior intercostals arteries anastomose to supply _____________ muscles.
    intercostals
  83. The aorta in the abdomen is the _________________ aorta
    abdominal
  84. There are three major branches of the abdominal aorta to organs of digestion
    • 1) Celiac trunk - to live, stomach and spleen
    • 2) superior mesenteric artery- to small and first part of large intestine
    • 3) Inferior mesenteric artery - to second part of colon and rectum
  85. The arterial supply to the kidneys is the ___________ arteries
    renal
  86. THe arterial supply to reproductie organs is the _______ arteries
    gonadal
  87. The _____ and ____________ arteries branch off of aorta in pairs.
    renal and gonadal
  88. The abdominal aorta branches to become the ______ and __________ arteries
    right and left common iliac
  89. The external iliac artery becomes the __________ artery
    femoral
  90. The internal iliac artery supplies the organs in the _________.
    pelvis: bladder, uterus, vagina, rectum and gluteal muscles
  91. The internal iliac artery gives off branches = the ______ and ____________ arteries
    superior and inferior gluteal
  92. IN the gluteal region, the superior and inferior gluteal arteries run with the superior and inferior ______________.
    gluteal nerves
  93. The superior gluteal artery aupplies the ____________, __________ and _____________.
    gluteus medius, minimus and tensor facia lata
  94. The inferior gluteal artery supplies the _________.
    gluteus maximus
  95. Arterires conduct blood __ from the heart into capillaries of tissues or organs.
    away
  96. Arteries are _______________ vessels.
    high-pressure
  97. Viens being at capillaries and return blood from tissues or organs __________ the heart
    toward
  98. Veins are _____________ vessels
    low-pressure
  99. Arteries and veins usuall travel together and bear the same name except

    Aorta vs. __________ and ___________; and the Carotid artery vs. ___________ vein.
    interior and superior vena cava, jugular
  100. Superficial veins of the extremities serve as _____________, travel in the _____________ and have no accompanying arteries.
    heat radiators, hypodermis
  101. There are three types of capillaries:
    continuous, fenestrated, sinusoid
  102. __________ ________ are special systems where an artery or vein is insertevessels d between two capillary beds.
    "Portal" vessels
  103. __________ generally DO have valves; _________ generally do NOT have valvles; but the _______ and ____________ both have semilunar valves (exceptions)
    Veins, arteries, aorta and pulmonary trunk
  104. Arteries form _____________ around joints, the brain, the heart, and other important organs; this situation is called _____________.
    anastomoses, collateral circulation
  105. Very large arteries have their own blood supply; these blood vessels are called __________.
    Vasa vasorum
  106. In the extremities, numerous veins accompany a names artery. These veins are called _______________.
    vena comitantes
  107. Ascending aorta gives off the __________________________ arteries
    right and left coronary
  108. The left coronary artery gives off the _________________, _________________, and ______________ arteries.
    anterior interventricular, left marginal and circumflex
  109. The right coronary arter branches into the _________, _____________ and _____________ arteries.
    Right marginal, nodal to the SA node, posterior interventricular
  110. There are three branches of the arch of the aorta
    • 1) brachiocephalic trunk (common carotid and right subclavian)
    • 2) left common carotid
    • 3) left subclavian

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