Psych 10

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antonettesadile
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140798
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Psych 10
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2012-03-10 17:32:26
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Unit 3 Terms
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  1. Biomedical Therapy
    Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
  2. psychopharmacology
    the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
  3. antipsychotic drugs
    drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
  4. tardive dyskinesia
    involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
  5. antianxiety drugs
    drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
  6. antidepressant drugs
    drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
  7. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
  8. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
    the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
  9. psychosurgery
    surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
  10. lobotomy
    a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrolably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
  11. motivation
    a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
  12. instinct
    a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  13. drive-reduction theory
    the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  14. homostasis
    a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
  15. incentive
    a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  16. heirarchy of needs
    Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs become active
  17. set point
    the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an inrease in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
  18. basal metabolic rate
    the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  19. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder in which a person (usualy an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underwieght, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
  20. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characteriszed by episodes of overeating usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise
  21. binge-eating disorder
    significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fastng, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
  22. sexual response cycle
    • the four stages if sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-
    • 1.excitement
    • 2. plateau
    • 3. orgasm
    • 4. resolution
  23. refractory period
    a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot acieve another orgasm
  24. sexual disorder
    a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
  25. estrogens
    sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by makes and contributing to female sex charcteristics. In non-human femal mammals, estrogn leves peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
  26. testosterone
    the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  27. sexual orientation
    an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the opposite sex (heterosexual orientation)
  28. flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
  29. industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
    the application of psycholigical concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workspaces
  30. personnel psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
  31. organizational psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilities organizational change
  32. structured interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
  33. achievement motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of thing, people, or ideas, for rapidly attaining a high standard
  34. task leadership
    goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
  35. social leadership
    group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  36. psychotherapy
    treatmeant involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
  37. eclectic approach
    an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
  38. psychoanalysis
    Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and tranferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
  39. resistance
    in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
  40. interpretation
    in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
  41. transference
    in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
  42. Psychodynamic therapy
    therapy deriving from the psychoanalyrtic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconsciousn forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insght
  43. insight-therapies
    a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
  44. client-centered therapy
    • a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses technniques such as active listening withing a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth
    • -person-centered therapy
  45. active listening
    empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger's client-centered therapy
  46. unconditional positive regard
    a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude which CARL ROGERS believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
  47. behavior therapy
    therapy that applies learning principles to the elimation of unwanted behaviors
  48. counterconditioning
    a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
  49. exposure therapies
    behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the the things they fear and avoid
  50. systematic desensitization
    a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
  51. virtual reality exposure therapy
    an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations or their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
  52. adversive conditioning
    a type of conterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
  53. token economy
    an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort of exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
  54. cognitive therapy
    therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
  55. cognitive-behavior therapy
    a popular intergrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
  56. family therapy
    therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
  57. schizophrenia
    a group of severe disorders charterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, distrubed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions
  58. delusions
    false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
  59. mood disorders
    • psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
    • see major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder
  60. major depressive disorder
    a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medial condition, tow or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings or worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activites
  61. mania
    a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
  62. bipolar disorder
    • a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hoplessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
    • Fomeraly called manic-depressive disorder
  63. dissociative disorders
    disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
  64. dissociative indentity disorder (DID)
    • a rare dissociateve disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.
    • Formerly called multiple personality disorder
  65. personality disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  66. antisocial personality disorder
    a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be agressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
  67. somatoform disorder
    • psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
    • See conversion disorder and hypochondasis
  68. conversion disorder
    a rare somtoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptooms for which no physiological basis can be found
  69. hypochondriasis
    a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
  70. psychological disorder
    deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  71. medical model
    the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
  72. DSM-IV-TR
    the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
  73. anxiety disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
  74. generalized anxiety disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
  75. panic disorder
    an anxiety disorders marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes or intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
  76. phobia
    an anxiety disorder makrjed by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
  77. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  78. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
  79. post-traumatic growth
    positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

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