PADO

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Author:
NinjaTarzan
ID:
140833
Filename:
PADO
Updated:
2014-09-20 16:16:41
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Fire Engineering
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Description:
Pumper/Apparatus Driver Operator Exam Preparation for Promotional
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  1. Atmospheric pressure at sea level
    • 14.7 psi
    • or
    • 101 kPa
  2. Altitude pressure drop
    0.5 psi (3.5 kPa) per 1000 feet
  3. 1 cubic foot of water exerts:
    0.434 psi
  4. 0.1m x 0.1m x 0.1m of water is:
    • 1 liter of volume,
    • 1 kilogram of mass,
    • 1 kPa of pressure
  5. 1 foot square column of water needs to be this high to exert 1 psi:
    2.304 feet
  6. The weight of 1 cubic foot of water
    62.5 pounds
  7. Water distribution lines
    • Primary feeders - 16"
    • Secondary feeders - 12"
    • Distributors - 8"
    • Hydrant supplies: Residential - 6"
    • Commercial - 8"
  8. Class A foam percentages
    0.2-1.0%

    • 0.2-0.5 - fire attack; CAFS
    • 0.5-1.0 - exposure protection
    • 0.3-0.7 - air aspirating foam nozzles
  9. Three factors that influence centrifugal pumps
    • Amount of water being discharged
    • Speed of the impeller
    • Pressure of water entering the pump
  10. ARAFFF
    Alcohol resistant aqueous film forming foam
  11. Master Stream Flows and Friction Losses (per 100' of 21/2")
    • 11/4" - 400 gpm, 36 psi
    • 11/2" - 600 gpm, 78 psi
    • 13/4" - 800 gpm, 136 psi
    • 17/8" - 900 gpm, 171 psi
    • 2" - 1,000 gpm, 210 psi
  12. 11/4" Master stream
    • 80 psi
    • 400 gpm
    • FL = 36 psi per 100' of 21/2" line
  13. 11/2" Master Stream
    • 80 psi
    • 600 gpm
    • FL = 78 psi per 100' of 21/2" line
  14. 13/4" Master stream
    • 80 psi
    • 800 gpm
    • FL = 136 psi per 100' of 21/2" line
  15. 17/8" Master stream
    • 80 psi
    • 900 gpm
    • FL = 171 psi per 100' of 21/2" line
  16. 2" Master stream
    • 80 psi
    • 1,000 gpm
    • FL = 210 psi per 100' of 21/2" line
  17. Safest water flow rule
    • 75/80/80
    • 75o elevation
    • 80% extension
    • 80 psi nozzle pressure on smooth bore
  18. Water weight on structure
    250 gpm = 1 ton per minute
  19. NPDP
    • Net pump discharge pressure
    • work pump has to do on water

    Hydrant at 100 psi with PDP of 150 psi = NPDP of 50 psi
  20. Idling Diesels
    Burn 1/2 gallon diesel per hour

    Cause carbon build-up on injectors, valves, pistons, and valve seats; damage turbo shaft
  21. SAE
    Society of Automotive Engineers

    SAE number indicates viscosity
  22. Aerial apparatus categories
    • Aerial ladders
    • Elevating platforms
    • Water towers
  23. IFSTA Formula for Friction Loss
    FL = CQ2L

    • C = 13/4" = 15.5
    • 21/2" = 2
    • 5" = 0.08
  24. Dual Pumping
    One hydrant hooked to pumper, excess hydrant pressure flows through 1st pumper to 2nd pumper
  25. Handline Flows and Friction Losses (per 100' of 13/4" unless otherwise noted)
    • TFT - 170 gpm, 35 psi
    • Control Nozzle on 21/2" - 250 gpm, 15 psi
    • 3/4" - 120 gpm, 20 psi
    • 7/8" - 160 gpm, 30 psi
    • 15/16" - 180 gpm, 40 psi
    • 1" - 200 gpm, 50 psi
    • 11/8" (21/2" hose) - 250 gpm, 15 psi
    • 11/4" (21/2" hose) - 325 gpm, 25 psi
  26. 1" Handline
    • 50 psi
    • 200 gpm
    • FL = 50 psi per 100' of 1 3/4" hose
  27. 11/8" Handline
    • 50 psi
    • 250 gpm
    • FL = 15 psi per 100' of 21/2" hose
  28. 11/4" Handline
    • 50 psi
    • 325 gpm
    • FL = 25 psi per 100' of 21/2" hose
  29. Apparatus Tests
    • Accelerate to 35 mph in 25 seconds
    • Minimum top speed 50 mph
    • Stop from 20 mph in 35'
  30. Hydrostatic Test
    Pumps 250 psi for 3 min
  31. Water Tower Flows
    1,000 to 5,000 gpm
  32. Aerial Roof
    6' above roof line
  33. Power Lines
    Stay away minimum of 10'
  34. Collapse Zone
    Height of Building x 1.5
  35. 13/4" Control Nozzle
    • 100 psi
    • 170 gpm
    • FL = 35 psi per 100' of 13/4" hose
  36. 21/2" Control Nozzle
    • 100 psi
    • 250 gpm
    • FL = 15 psi per 100' of 21/2" hose
  37. NFPA 1451
    Standard for Fire Service Vehicle Operations Training Program
  38. NFPA 1500
    Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
  39. NFPA 1001
    Standard for Firefighter Professional Qualifications
  40. NFPA 1906
    Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus
  41. NFPA 1582
    Standard on Medical Requirements for Firefighters
  42. NFPA 1914
    Standard for Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices
  43. NFPA 1901
    Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. Requires minimum pump capacity of 750 gpm.
  44. NFPA 1002
    Standard for Professional ADO Qualifications (includes preventative maintenance and inspections)
  45. Quint
    • Apparatus equipped with:
    • 1. Pump > 1,000 gpm
    • 2. Tank > 300 gallons
    • 3. Ground Ladders > 85'
    • 4. Hose > 800' of 21/2" Supply + 400' of 13/4" Attack
    • 5. Aerial Device
  46. Aerial Hydraulics
    3,500 psi positive displacement rotary vane or rotary gear
  47. Valve Controls
    • Manual
    • Mechanical
    • Electrical
    • Hydraulic

    or combination of these
  48. PTO Activation Switches
    • Pneumatic - 50 - 140 psi air
    • Electric
    • Hydraulic

    or combination of these
  49. Foam Expansion
    • Low: 0 - 20:1
    • Med: 20:1 - 200:1
    • High: 200:1 - 1,000:1
  50. Foam Tetrahedron
    • Foam concentrate
    • Water
    • Air
    • Mechanical agitation
  51. Class A Foam Percentages
    • 0.2 - 0.5% = fire attack/overhaul
    • 0.5 - 1.0% = exposure protection
    • 0.3 - 0.7% = any application with air aspirating nozzles
    • 0.2 - 0.5% = CAFS
  52. Foam Types
    • Chemical
    • Mechanical
  53. Extrication Pump Hose Length
    Not capable of supplying full power when hose exceeds 100'
  54. Apparatus Collision Categories
    • Improper Backing
    • Reckless Driving (Public)
    • Excessive Speed
    • Lack of Driving Skill
    • Poor Apparatus Design or Maintenance
  55. Apparatus Control Factors
    • Aim high in steering
    • Get "big picture"
    • Keep eyes moving
    • Leave yourself an "out"
    • Make sure others see or hear you
  56. Auxilliary Braking Systems
    • Front brake limiting
    • Interaxle differential lock
    • ABS Anti-lock Braking System
    • ATC Automatic Traction Control
  57. Offensive Aerial Positioning
    Front of involved portion of structure
  58. Counter Balance Valve
    Prevents unintentional or undesireable operation
  59. Selector Valve
    3-way valve directs fluid to stabilizers or Aerial, but not both at the same time
  60. Ladder Elevation
    70o to 80o when possible
  61. Longitudinal Uneveness
    6 - 14%

    Aerial should not be extended or retracted over side of apparatus
  62. Correction of Lateral Unevenness
    Achieved on grades up to 5 - 6%
  63. Water Weights
    • 62.5 lbs per ft3
    • 8.33 lbs per gallon
    • Column of water 2.304' tall = 1 psi
    • 1 ft3 of water = 0.434 psi, 7.5 gallons
  64. Portable Generators
    5,000 Watts
  65. Vehicle Mounted Generators
    12,000 Watts

    Common on Aerials
  66. Aerial Device Loads
    • Perpendicular
    • Lateral (Bad)
  67. Handline Flow Limit
    350 gpm
  68. Master Stream Flow
    350 gpm or greater
  69. Fire Stream Velocities
    60-120 ft/sec at 25-100 psi
  70. Master Stream Pressure
    80 psi
  71. Solid Stream Nozzle Reaction Formula
    NR = 1.57 x d2 x NP
  72. Fog Stream Nozzle Reaction Formula
    NR = 0.0505 x Q x
  73. Determining PDP
    PDP = NP + TPL
  74. NFPA 1931
    Standard for manufacturer's design of Fire Department ground ladders
  75. Minimum Rated Capacity of Mobile Foam Firefighting Apparatus
    750 gpm
  76. Turbidity
    The amount of particulate matter suspended in water
  77. Residual Pressure
    An indication of how much more water is available in the system
  78. NFPA 291
    Recommended Practice for Fire Flow testing and marking of hydrants
  79. Portable Pumps
    Can deliver up to 500 gpm
  80. Air Brake Check "COLA"
    • C - Air Compressor cuts in no lower than 85 psi
    • O - Air compressor cuts Out in high idle between 110-120 psi
    • L - Low pressure warning kicks on, parking brake kicks in around 40 psi
    • A - Air Leakage rate < 3 psi per min.
  81. Flow Ratings
    • 100% volume @ 150 psi
    • 70% volume @ 200 psi
    • 50% volume @ 250 psi
  82. 13/4" Hose with Fog Nozzle Standard Flow
    150 gpm
  83. 13/4" Hose with 15/16" - 1" Nozzle Standard Flow
    180 -200 gpm
  84. 200' Rule for 13/4" Hose
    The PDP is equal in to the flow in gallons per minute from the nozzle.
  85. Drop 12 Method
    • Subtract 12 from the first two digits of the flow. That will give friction loss for 100' of 21/2" hose.
    • For flows above 350, drop 12 and then add back in the first digit of the flow; i.e., 350-> 35 - 12 = 23 + 3 = 26
  86. 14.7 PSI
    • Atmospheric Pressure at sea level
    • 30" of mercury
    • 33.9' of water
  87. Nozzle Reaction
    1.5 x D2 x NP
  88. Velocity of Fire Stream in FPS
    12.1 x
  89. Standard Sources of Friction Loss
    • 5 psi per floor/10' of elevation (do not count ground floor)
    • 25 psi for Standpipe
    • 25 psi for prepiped Aerial
    • 10 psi for Wye/Siamese
  90. Available Flow from Hydrants
    • 10% drop = 3 more like volumes
    • 15% drop = 2 more like volumes
    • 25% drop = 1 more like volume
  91. PCFD Apparatus Placement SOG
    • Use "Key Positions," including:
    • Aerial placement in relation to overhead obstructions
    • Engine placement in relation to water supply
    • Priorities: Safety, Incident Objectives, Incident Expansion.
    • Level I Staging for 2 or more like vehicles
    • Level II Staging for multiple alarms or mutual aid
  92. PCFD Accident Involvement SOG
    • Check for injuries
    • Report to law enforcement and BC if injuries or outside property damage are present
    • Report to BC if on emergency response and no injuries or outside property damage are present
    • Remain on-scene if not on emergency response and injuries or outside property damage are present
  93. NWCG Structural Engine Typing
    • Type 1:
    • 1000 gpm pump at 150 psi, 400+ gallon tank, 1200' of 21/2", 400' of 11/2", 48' of ladders, 500 gpm master stream, 4 Personnel

    • Type 2:
    • 250 gpm pump at 150 psi, 400+ gallon tank, 1000' of 21/2", 500' of 11/2", 48' of ladders,
    • 3 Personnel
  94. NWCG Wildland Engine Typing
    • Type 3:
    • 150 gpm @ 250 psi, 500+ gallons, 500' of 11/2", 500' of 1", 3 personnel

    • Type 4:
    • 50 gpm @ 100 psi, 750+ gallons, 300' of 11/2", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type 5:
    • 50 gpm @ 100 psi, 400-750 gallons, 300' of 11/2", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type 6:
    • 30 gpm @ 100 psi, 150-400 gallons, 300' of 11/2", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type 7:
    • 10 gpm @ 100 psi, 50-200 gallons, 200' of 1", 2 personnel
  95. FEMA Engine Typing
    (ESF 4)
    • Type I:
    • 1000 gpm, 400 gal., 1200' of 2.5", 400' of 1.5", 200' of 1", 4 personnel

    • Type II:
    • 500 gpm, 400 gal., 1000' of 2.5", 500' of 1.5", 300' of 1", 3 personnel

    • Type III: 
    • 120 gpm, 500 gal., 1000' of 1.5", 800' of 1", 3 personnel

    • Type IV:
    • 70 gpm, 750 gal., 300' of 1.5", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type V:
    • 50 gpm, 500 gal., 300' of 1.5", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type VI:
    • 50 gpm, 200 gal., 300' of 1.5", 300' of 1", 2 personnel

    • Type VII:
    • 50 gpm, 125 gal., 200' of 1.5", 200' of 1", 2 personnel
  96. NWCG Water Tender Typing
    • Type 1:
    • 5000 gal., 300 gpm, 30 min refill time

    • Type 2:
    • 2500 gal., 200 gpm, 20 min refill time

    • Type 3:
    • 1000 gal., 200 gpm, 15 min refill time
  97. FEMA Water Tender Typing
    (ESF 4)
    • Type I:
    • 2000 gal., 300 gpm

    • Type II:
    • 1000 gal., 120 gpm

    • Type III:
    • 1000 gal., 50 gpm

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