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- a) propaganda refers to the spreading of ideas to help or injure someone (usually some one in public office), a group, or a country.
- b) Using various actions (including communicative means) to bring a course of action that is either socially beneficial or socially harmful.
- c) Appealing to emotions rather than reason
- · A language which pretends to communicate but does not.
- · Doublespeak is often used to mislead.
- · It alters our perception of reality, breads suspicion, cynicism, distrust and hostility.
- · Doublespeak may be done through the use of Euphemisms (words designed to avoid harsh or distasteful reality).Euphemisms can sugar-coat the truth and distort reality.
- -A politician identifying his program with virtue by the use of "virtue words." ·
- -The political actor through words of virtue appeal to our emotions of love, generosity, and brotherhood. ·
- -The words suggest shining ideals which people of goodwill will readily accept. ·
- -Glittering generalities make us accept facts without examining them. ·
- - Makes an audience personify an idea.
- Examples: Patriotism, compassionate, truth, a uniter, loyalty, freedom to chose,
- honor, liberty, social justice, public service, the right to work, affirmative
- access, progress, democracy, the American way, Constitution-defender,
- · Employing device(s) like symbols, colors, music, movement, dramatic arts to making people follow the crowd, accept program en masse.
- · Band wagon involves harnessing fear, prejudices, hate, biases, convictions, ideals common to a group.
- · Employing all the arts of deception to win support.
- · Involves stacking the cards against the truth.
- · Using under-emphasis and over-emphasis to evade facts and dodge issues.
- · Resorting to lies, censorship, distortion, false testimony.
- · Omission of facts ·
- - Raising new issues to make old embarrassing one disappear or forgotten.
- · Employing sham, hypocrisy, effrontery (shameless boldness).
- · Used to build up a candidate, a political course of action including war.
- · Used to destroy another individual, political party or country by making one’s course of action seem or look credible although it may be worthless.
- · Carrying over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something (e.g., church, nation, heritage) the electorate or public respects and revere to something a political actor would them to accept.
- · Getting churches to go against abortion and then transferring that authority into one’s political program.
- ---May involve the use of symbolism: crucifix for Catholicism, swastika for anti-Semitism or Nazism
- (often used by a hate group)
- · Making the public accept anything from a movie, a cultural truism, a to a program of national policy.
- · Mr. Regan: Vote for the Gipper
- · Gipper = grandfather or movie character
Gobbledygook or bureaucratese
Overwhelming the audience with words. Alan Greenspan
- -Words and expressions used with the aim of making the ordinary seem extraordinary·
- -Words and expressions used to make everyday things seem impressive·
- -Words and expressions used to give an air of importance to people or situations, to make the simple complex.
- - Use of specialized language of a trade, profession or similar group such as, lawyers, doctors, politicians, etc.
- - Jargons allows professional to carry out effective communication. ·
- - When professionals use jargons to speak with non-professionals then it becomes doublespeak.
- A political slogan is a catchword or rallying motto distinctly associated with a political party or other group.
- Like any newly created words, the effectiveness of a slogan depends on its acceptability by the general public.
- Slogans are generally brief statements of a single idea.
- They are easy to remember and repeat.
- They are usually three to four words
Mostly moralistic e.g., I will never lie; a government as good as the people conciliations: panama Canal Treaty (Foreign conciliation); Decontrol of gasoline prices (domestic program), environmental protection (domestic program); human rights (foreign conciliation); deregulation of airlines (domestic program); Camp David Accords (foreign conciliation). aggression: energy crises (from energy crises--the moral equivalent of war).
- get the government off the backs of the people
- reduce government spending
- tax reduction
- the new American revolution
- strategic defense initiative
- just say no
Bush 1 Slogans
- I want a kinder , gentler America
- No new taxes
- the education president
- war on drugs
- operation desert storm
- the new world order
- the new covenant (campaign promise)
- reinventing government (campaign promise)
- putting people first (campaign promise)
- end welfare as we know it
- the era of big government is over
- North American Free trade Agreement
Purpose of Slogans
- Slogans express political actors’ intentions for their administrations.
- To increase acceptance of a proposal by associating it with a brief memorable phrase
- It is a vivid stimulus associated with a proposal
- They are viewed as valid promise(s) by political actors.
- They are prominent and frequently repeated attributes of political actors or administrations
- They provide an insight into the personality of the president
Slogan to be accepted
- (a) the group of words do not have to be used frequently in other contexts;
- (b) the slogan must be proposed multiple times by the political actor or members of his party
- (c) the slogan must be repeated many times by journalists and other political commentators.
- (d) the political must view the Public’s sentiments toward the slogan.