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2012-03-12 08:11:11
psu physiology

biol 141 test 2
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  1. The endocrine system coordinates body activities and maintains homeostasis through _________.
    chemical messengers
  2. Some drugs that bind to steroid hormone receptors are called agonists. They must be _______.
  3. True or false? Water-soluble hormones pass through the plasma membrane on their own
  4. Red bone marrow cells respond to a hormone called erythropoietin. Why doesn�t a liver or kidney cell respond to this hormone?
    Only target cells, which contain the receptors for a hormone, can respond to that hormone (Kidney and liver cells do not contain the protein receptor that binds erythropoietin)
  5. The adenohypophysis is AKA the ______________
    anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  6. the neurohypophysis is AKA the ______________
    Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  7. ADH & oxytocin are produced by the _________ lobe of the pituitary gland
    posterior (neurohypophysis)
  8. FSH, LH, Growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, and Prolactin are produced by the _________
    anterior adenohypophysis
  9. True or false? The hypothalamus is often called the �master endocrine gland� since it secretes hormones that control other endocrine glands
  10. Over-secretion of which hormone will result in acromegaly?
    growth hormone
  11. Growth hormone stimulates growth, especially in muscles and bones. What specific structure in bones contains many target cells for this hormone?
    epiphyseal plate (the growth plate in children�s long bones)
  12. (Kennedy) autoimmune disorder in which the cells of the adrenal cortex are perceived as foreign. inadequate secretion of ACTH, bronzing of the skin, weight loss, etc
    Addinson's disease
  13. Results in redistribution of body fat and accumulation of fluid in the face, fatigue, high blood pressure, and elevated glucose levels.oversecretion of glucocorticoids or a tumor on either the adrenal cortex or anterior pituitary .
    Cushing's syndrome
  14. The adrenal medulla secretes hormones used by the ____ nervous system.
  15. Too little thyroid hormone secretion causes ...
    Decreased body temperature and heart rate (decreases metabolic activity of body cells)
  16. Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts. This would ____ calcium levels in the blood.
  17. Which endocrine gland might be involved in Seasonal Affective Disorder, which occurs in some people during winter, when the days are shorter?
    Pineal (melatonin secretion for sleepiness & depression)
  18. Which pancreatic hormone functions to increase blood glucose levels?
  19. Glucagon stimulates the liver to break glycogen down into _________, which is then released into the bloodstream
  20. A person�s own immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas responsible for insulin production
    diabetes type I
  21. Characterized by a decreased sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance)
    diabetes type II
  22. the plasma membrane of muscles is the _______________
  23. _________ is the site where a motor neuron stimulates a muscle
    motor end plate
  24. voluntarily controlled muscles:
  25. Muscle groups that work together are called __________.
  26. area from one Z line to the next is the _____________
  27. The structural and contractile unit of a skeletal muscle is a __________.
  28. Calcium is stored in specialized _______ called a ________.
    smooth ER; sarcoplasmic reticulum
  29. The two types of myofilaments in sarcomeres are __________.
    myosin & actin
  30. Sarcomeres shorten when ______ binds to _______.
    myosin; actin
  31. after death: within 3-4 hours, muscles become ____; after 2-3 days become _________
    stiff; relaxed
  32. At a neuromuscular junction, the motor neuron stimulates a muscle fiber by releasing ______, which binds to receptors
  33. When acetylcholine binds to protein receptors on the muscle fiber�s plasma membrane, _______ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  34. Muscle fibers shorten when the tension produced is just greater than the load: _____
  35. Muscles can�t shorten because the load is too great:______
  36. which muscle fiber type is most powerful?
  37. The molecule that provides energy for muscle contraction is ____________.
  38. _______________ uses oxygen and glucose.
    aerobic respiration
  39. Wendy the whippet and other "jacked-up" mammals are due to decreased ____________ levels
  40. _________ connects bone to muscle
  41. True or false? Anemia of any type causes a lack of oxygen in the tissues, stressing and eventually killing cells
  42. a cancer of WBC, causing # of wbc to decrease
  43. An increase in ______ indicates the presence of parasites
    Eosinophils -- white blood cells that attack parasitic worms
  44. Leukocytes function in ____, while platelets(thrombocytes), _____.
    immunity; clot blood
  45. Oxygen is primarily transported by ____.
  46. What is the metal responsible for oxygen-binding in the hemoglobin molecule?
  47. True or false? The reason that erythrocytes don�t live very long is that cells without DNA are unable to produce and repair old, worn out cell parts
  48. Carbon dioxide is primarily transported by ________.
    being disolved in the plasma
  49. What cell gives rise to all other blood cells?
    stem cells
  50. A bone marrow transplant replaces diseased bone marrow with that from a donor. What complications might you expect from this procedure?
    donor tissue may create WBC to attack host(foreign) tissue
  51. What stimulates the production of red blood cells?
  52. universal donor:__, universal recipient:____
    O; AB
  53. Type A red blood cells contain ___ antigens and those individuals make anti-___ antibodies
    A; B
  54. Blood type ___ contains no antigens, while blood type ___ makes no antibodies
    O; AB
  55. Rh__ mother and Rh_____ baby = antigens formed for the NEXT fetus
    negative; positive
  56. what is the initial stimulus for a blood clot to form?
    cut to a vessel
  57. Albumin,Fibrinogen,Keratin,Prothrombin: which is not found in the blood??
  58. A condition in which parasites block the passage of lymphatic fluid returning to blood
  59. reduced ability of RBC to carry oxygen (by low hemoglobin or RBC count)
  60. ___________ do NOT have ducts
    endocrine glands
  61. glucagon and insulin-- this is an example of antagonistic ______ feedback
  62. tyrosine - kinase receives ________
  63. the binding messenger for calcium (modulates it)
  64. results when the anterior pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (GH) after epiphyseal plate closure at puberty
    acromegaly (Andre the Giant)
  65. short range prostate chemicals that may have anti-inflamitory potential
  66. expothalamos and Grave's disease are linked with overactive ________
  67. _________: regulates calcium
  68. the bone-to-bone connector
  69. a single motor neuron and its innervated muscle connection
    motor unit
  70. ___________ filaments contain the myosin heads; ______ filaments hold the actin binding sites
    thick; thin
  71. the NT at the end plate is ______________
  72. group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion
    Muscular Dystrophy
  73. The order of muscle energy used, from first to last:
    • 1) Fatty acids
    • 2)glycogen
    • 3) glucose
  74. Sprinters: ______ twitch (type __)
    Fast; II
  75. endurance runners: _____ twitch (type __)
    slow; I
  76. occurs in skeletal muscles in response to strength training
    muscular hypertrophy
  77. ______ muscle does NOT have striations
  78. large, bumpy axon node sites where Action Potentials are created
  79. a cardiovascular break in the "plumbing"
  80. this can be "smelled" by the other cells; it is involved in immunity recognition (A, B, AB, etc.)
  81. the test used to determine blood type. Cells clump together when an antibody is present and brings them together
  82. "Normal" blood pressure systolic / diasystolic
    120 / 80
  83. PATHWAY OF HEART(veins to arteries)
    1)_____ atrium leads to 2) ______ ventricle. Then, 3) _____ pulmonary to the lung(CO2 OUT). 4) (O2) comes in the ____ atrium
    Right; Left; Left; Left
  84. venous travel is by muscle pumping, valves, and ________
  85. bubonic plague was due to inflamed ________
    lymphatic nodes
  86. tachycardia is defined as ________ beats per minute
    over 100
  87. The medulla oblongata is critical in __________
    Heart rate control
  88. _______ Occurs when there is inadequate blood flow to match oxygen usage in the tissues
    circulatory shock
  89. ________: Due to low blood volume from an injury, dehydration, or burns
    hypovolemic shock
  90. Occurs when cardiac output is not sufficient to maintain blood flow required by the body:
    congestive heart failure
  91. total peripheral resistance and stroke volume are ______ related
  92. stroke volume _________ when Contractility or EDV (end-diastolic volume) increases