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a source of motivation for instrumental behavior caused by the presentation of a stimulus that was previously condtioned with aprumary or uncondtioned reinfrocer
an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the participant's behavior prevents the delviery of an aversive stimulus
a trial in a discriminated avoidance proceudre in which avoidance respsonse is made and prevents the delivery of the aversive stimulus
an avoidacne conditoing procedure in which occurecnes of the aversive stimulus are signaled by a conditioing stimulus. Responding during the condtioned stimeuls terminates the CS and prevents the delivery of the aversive uncondtioend stimuls
a proceudre in which responding is punished in the presece of a particlur stimuls and not punished in the absence if that stimulus
a trial during discriminated avoidance training in which the required avoidance respnse is not made and the avserice uncodningred stimulus is presented. Preformance of the instrumental response during the aversice stimulus results in termination of the aversive stimulus. This the organimms is able to escape from the aversive stimulus
escape from fear procedure
situation in which subjects can learn an instrumental response to escape from or terminate a stimlus that elicits fear. Escape from fear provides a coping mechanism for individuals suffering from excessive fear.
a procedure for extinguishing avoidacnce behaovir in which the conditioned stimulus is presented whihle the participatn is prevent from making the avoidance response
Non discriminated avoidance
an avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurences of the aversive stimulus are not signaled by an external stimuls. In the absence of avoidance responding, the aversive stimuls is presented periodically as set by the S-S interval. Each occurecnes of the avoidance response creates a preiod of safety determined by the S-R interval dring which the aversive stimulus is not presented.
a procedure for discourageing behavior in which the partipant is not only required to correct or rectify a mistake but also required ot go beyond that by, for example, extensivly practicing the correct response alternative
The preceived likelihood of being attacked by a predator. Different species typical defense response occur in the face of differnt degrees of predatory immience
an instrumental conditioing proceudre in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. if the participant performs the instrumental response it recieces the aversice stimulus if the participant does not perform the instrumental response it does not receive the aversive stimulus
the interval between the occurcen of an avoidance response and the next scheduled presentation of the aversive stimulus in a non discrimnative avoidance procedure. thus the R-S interval sets the duration of safety created by reac avoidacne response in a nondiscrimatiee avoidacne proceudre
blocking the opportunity to make the avoidance resposne that the subject is exposed to a fear stimulus without being able to escape from it
A stimulus that signlas absence of aversive stimulus
shock frequency reduction
a hypothesis according to which reduction in the frequency of shock serves to reinfroce avoidance behavior
species specific defense reaction
species typical resposne animlas perfomr in aversive situatlion, inlcude freezing, flighting or fighting
the ineterval between the succesive presenations of the aversive stimulus in a nondiscrimiative avoidance proceure when the avoidance response is not perfomred
a period during which the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcemnet is removied. This may involve removal of the participant form the situaltion where reinfrocesmay be obtained
two-processes theory of avoidacne
a theory orgianlly developed to explain discrimatied avoiance learning that presumes the operation of two mechanisms: classical conditioning of fear to the warning signal or CS, and instrumental reinfrocement of the avoidance response through terminatio of the warning signal and consequent fear reduction
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