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What is herbivory?
eating plants, mostly insects and mammals are herbivores
Categorize herbivory into subgroups and describe them.
- 1]grazers-eat herbaceous plants
- 2]browsers-eat herbaceous "parts" of woody plants
Due to animal use of plant tissues, plants have responded to herbivory in several ways. Name to main (general) ways.
preventative and responsive
Describe preventative ways plants can protect themselves.
- thorns and spines
- stinging hairs-nettle-has HCL on tips of hairs.
- Chemicals -such as tannins that make plant tissues unpalatable or hard to digest (example- toxic alkaloids)
Describe responsive ways plants can protect themselves.
overcompensation-grazers may eat the apical meristem which would have produced a seed head:compensate by growing 4 lateral meristems and actually increasing fitness.
Some animals have responded to anti-predator devices so they can still use them. List some advantages.
- 1]obtain food source without competitors
- 2]use the plants poison as protection for the herbivore. example monarch butterfly
- 3]can use the defensive chemical as an indicator of food supply
How can herbivory effect plant distribution and abundance?
- overgrazing results in fields of species with herbivore defenses because others are selected against.
- studies of exclosures (herbivores are excluded)... deer may vrowse new groth thus affect regeneration species composition.
fruit eating usually birds, mammals, insects
Plants and animals are not the best of friends, however, how have plants turned this hostile relationship into a mutualistic one?
animals gets food(fruit), voids seeds elsewhere helping dispersal of plants
The development of _____________ by mammals (primates) probably is related to colored fruit.
Define/Describe seed predation...
removes potential plants from the population
Why do some plants have large mast production in one year and small mast productions in others?
- Maybe because of climate(good year), it's able to store energy for burst.
- Or maybe it satiates the seed predator before all seeds are gone in a good year.
Seed predators that K-select to predictable seed crops from plants create problems for those plants. How might plants get around this issue?
- The plants could alternate their years of seed production. Large one year, small the next. This would prevent seed predators from K-selecting.
- Or... they could synchronize their seed production with other trees.