The place where knowledge is created: one culture does not overwhelm another but a third culture arises at the point of intersection.
Ganma: from Australian aboriginals
They have a very traditional cultually defined style of living, grandparents may live with them, traditional language, respect for elders, tradition rituals, ceremonies.
Adopting mainstream lifestyle, understand native language but likely speak English, not totally in either one.
Speaking English, mainstream practices, but particularly in child rearing lean much more toward mainstream.
At some level have maistream culture but try and go back and pick up what they lost, redefine cultual aspects that they have lost as they move towards mainstream.
Legally gave Americans the right to preserve, promote, and use native languages.
Native American Language Act of 1990
Deals with groups
no distinction between human life, nature and the supernatural.
harmony- in Native Americans
Most information is in the physical context or internalized with little being coded or transmitted.
Most information is coded
____________ is linear, temporal, individual, material( has a timeline, first this, then this)
is non linear, doesnt' follow a time line, some think it follows a circle pattern, a little more difficult to follow, may be event focused, they expect you to make the connection.
Non Mainstream discourse
Literacy varies across cultures and encompasses more than just reading and writing.
deals with KWL (what do I know, what do I want to know, what did I learn)discuss valules and beliefs
Deals with multiple perspectives
doing something about what you are studying (writing a letter, participating in activity)
Describes all who trace their descent from Spanish speaking countries- chosen by the US government.
Those who see themselves as coming from a Spanish speaking background
A term used by those of Mexican descent who do not view themselves as either Mexican or American. Not a homogenous group
1980's brought the largest wave of Nicaraguan immigrants.
means male supremacy
means women are dutiful, sacrificing
means able to comprehend or produce two or more languages in oral, manual, or written form regardless of the level of proficiency or use and the age at which the languages were learned.
Oral, written, sign, and gestural are what?
Language output modes
Speak 2 languages before the age of 3
Acquired second language after age 3 or 4
Preschool successive bilingual
Acquired second language at age 5 or 6
School age successive bilingual
Using features of both lanugages.- May continue up to age 3 1/2 for simultaneous bilingual children.
Language mixing or Code switching
Content words such as "want food" (noun, verb)
includes chuncks, phrases, (things they hear all the time)
examples of this language are "how are you", 'my turn', or "me first"
weakening of first language because of emphasis on second language, so much time is spent on learning the second language that the second weakens. (can occur at any age, even adulthood)
Bilingual and biliteracy are what kind of models?
What kind of model uses non-English language to facilitate English through the curriculum
Which model combines the Maintenance and Transitional model?
Use this in middle and high schools the goal is to learn English fast?
Designed for children from majority trying to learn a second language.
Ex. Canada: put peple who speak only English in classroom where only language is French.
This combines minority L1 with English Speakers is called?
Dual Language Immersion
Which model was mandated by the Bilingual Education Act of 1974?
Failure to provide English language instruction to non-English speakers is a violation of civil rights?
T or F
SWOT stands for?
Developed the International Classification of Functioning (ICF)
WHO- World Health Organization
The goal of _______ is to provide high quality services that reflect the interests, values, needs and choices of the individuals we serve.
EBP- evidence based practice
Recovery parallels skills pre onset (usually one language is stronger)
One language recovers much better than the other one.
uncontrollable mixing of words and syntax of 2 or more languages even when attempting to speak one. (not normal, not code switching, has not control)
An acquired progressive deterioration in communication functioning, personality traits and intellectual function.
- results form widespread progressive neurophysical changes that eventually affect aspects of daily living.