Chapter 47

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  1. Infectious Disease
    Diseases that is caused by agents that have invaded the body
  2. Pathogen
    any agent that causes disease
  3. Koch's postulates
    "rules" for determining the cause of a disease
  4. mucous membrane
    Epithelial tissue that protects the interior surfaces of the body that may be exposed to pathogen
  5. inflammatory response
    a series of events that supress infection and speed recovery
  6. histamine
    • a substance that increases blood flow to the injured area and increases the permeability of the surrounding capillaries
    • results in redness, swelling, warmth, and pain
  7. phagocytes
    a type of white blood cell that ingest and destroy foreign matter
  8. neutrophil
    the most abundant type of phagocyte in the body
  9. macrophage
    a type of phagocyte that engulfs pathogens and cellular debris
  10. natural killer cells
    large white blood cells that attack pathogen-infected cells
  11. complement system
    • circulate the blood and becomes active when they encounter certain pathogens
    • made up of about 20 different proteins
  12. interferon
    • a nonspecific defence
    • a protein released by cells infected with viruses
  13. immune system
    where the cells and tissues recognize and attack foreign substances in the body , provides the body's specific defences
  14. lymphocytes
    the white blood cells of the immune system
  15. thymus
    • a gland located above the heart
    • helps produce a special kind of lymphocyte
  16. spleen
    • the largest lymphatic organ in the body
    • stores healthy blood cells
    • breaks down aging red blood cells
    • help develop lymphocytes and other white blood cell
  17. B cells
    • one of the two types of lymphocytes
    • made in the bone marrow and complete their development there
  18. T cells
    • one of the two types of lymphocytes
    • also made in the bone marrow but completes development after traveling to the thymus
  19. antigen
    • any substance that the immune system can recognize and react too
    • causes lymphocytes to react
  20. immune response
    the reaction of the body against an antigen
  21. helper T cell
    involved in the immune response and is required in the humoral immune response
  22. cell-mediated immune response
    an immune responcse that functionsto defend cells against invasion by foreign cells and that depends on the action of T cells
  23. cytotoxic T cells
    • also known as killer T cells
    • recognize and destroy cells that have been infected by the pathogen
  24. humoral immune response
    involves in the action of B cells and occurs at the same time the cell-mediated immune response occurs
  25. Plasma cells
    highly specialized cells that make defensive proteins called antibodies that are released in the blood cells
  26. antibody
    binds to a specific antigen or inactives or destroys toxins
  27. memory cells
    lymphocytes that will not respond the first time they meet with an antigenbut will recognize and attack that antigen during later infections
  28. immunity
    the ability to resist an infectious disease
  29. vaccination
    the introduction of antigens into the body to cause immunity
  30. asthma
    a respitory disorder that causes the airways in the lungs to narrow
  31. autoimmune disease
    a disease in which the immune system attacks the organism's own cells
  32. AIDS
    • acquired immunodeficiancy syndrome
    • where the immune system loses its ability to fight of pathogens and cancers
  33. HIV
    • human immundeficiency virus
    • the virus that causes AIDS
  34. opportunistic infection
    illnesses caused by pathogens that produce disease in pople with weakened immune system
Card Set
Chapter 47
The Body's defense system
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