Biology3 Lab4 exam2

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kjel
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Biology3 Lab4 exam2
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2012-04-14 04:56:39
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Biology3 Lab4 exam2
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  1. Fluid Mosaic Model: 4 components and their functions:
    • phospholipid: forms a continous fluid barrier of the cell
    • protein: transport molecules through the membrane; cell recognition
    • carbohydrate: act as a marker for cell to cell recognition; associated with proteins or lipids
    • cholesterol: fills in spaces and strengthens the membrane while maintaining the fluid nature
  2. 3 types of membrane proteins:
    • transport
    • receptor
    • recognition
  3. transport protein:
    • regulate movement of water soluble molecules
    • channel protein: on/off open/close
    • carrier protein: have binding sites -- lock & key
  4. receptor proteins
    • change chemistry in cell depending on type of molecule that binds to it
    • hormones or toxins
    • delivers chemical messages to cell
  5. recognition proteins:
    • proteins with carbohydrates attached; glycoprotein
    • recognizes foreign invaders vs own cells
  6. organelle
    "little organ", small membrane bound structures within a cell, each with a specific function.
  7. cell
    • the smallest unit of life; each cell carries on the functions associated with life, including...
    • complex/organized
    • growth/develop
    • metabolism
    • reproduce
    • evolve
    • respond to stimuli
    • homeostasis
    • DNA
  8. cytoplasm
    • the fluid matrix within the cell membrane
    • where most metabolism occurs
  9. cytoskeleton
    a network of protein fibers that supports the cell
  10. cell membrane
    • the boundry of the cell, controls the flow of molecules in and out of the cell
    • bacteria, plant, animal
  11. cell wall
    • tough polysaccharide layer that supports plant and bacterial cells
    • bacteria, plant
  12. nucleus
    • contains the genetic material (DNA) of plant and animal cells, directing all of the cells activity
    • plant, animal
  13. nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope)
    • nuclear pores allow easy movement of ions, water, ATP and RNA
    • membrane regulates movement of larger molecules like DNA
  14. nucleolus
    • contains DNA, RNA, proteins and ribosomes
    • site of ribosome assembly
    • [ribosome components leave the nucleus and are assembled in the cytoplasm]
  15. chromatin
    uncondensed strands of DNA and protein within the nucleus
  16. mitochondrion
    • the "powerhouse" of the cell, double membrane organelle that converts sugars into ATP for all cellular activity
    • [plant, animal]
  17. chloroplast
    • double membrane organelle that converts sunlight into chemical energy
    • stroma; aqueous solution, location of dark reaction
    • thykaloid discs, stacked = granum, location of light reaction and photosynthetic pigments
    • [plant]
  18. ribosome
    • organelle that synthesizes proteins by assembling the chains of amino acids
    • secrete proteins.... digestive enzymes, hormones
    • [bacteria, plant, animal]
  19. lysosome
    • contains digestive enzymes that can destroy worn out components of the cell; the "stomach" of the cell
    • derived from golgi apparatus
    • [plant, animal]
  20. golgi complex
    • processes and packages lipids and proteins; (folds proteins into correct shape)
    • derived from ER
    • [plant, animal]
  21. endoplasmic reticulum
    • series of membrane tubes that are connected and continuous with nuclear envelope;
    • rough ER: processes and packages the raw proteins produced by the ribosomes
    • smooth ER: synthesize lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins), detoxify (drugs and alcohol), stores calcium ions (muscle contraction), hormones
    • also forms golgi, lysosome, plasma membrane, replaces itself and replaces nuclear membrane
    • [plant, animal]
  22. vacuole
    • fluid filled sac within the cytoplasm containing water, pigments, food or toxins
    • fuses with lysosomes to get rid of waste
    • [plant, animal (sometimes)]
  23. cilia and flagella
    • accomplish movement for the cell
    • cilia: tiny hairs
    • flagella: long and whip-like
    • bacteria, animal
  24. these two organelles are found in all organisms, (bacteria, plant, and animal):
    • cell membrane
    • ribosomes
  25. pili
    soft extensions of the cell membrane that allow bacteria to stick to surfaces and transfer cytoplasm and DNA between individual cells
  26. solute
    a substance dissolved in a solvent
  27. solvent
    a liquid in which the solute is dissolved
  28. solution
    a combination of solute and solvent
  29. diffusion
    random movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
  30. osmosis
    the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
  31. hypertonic
    more solute
  32. isotonic
    same solute
  33. hypotonic
    less solute
  34. gradient
    a physical difference between two regions of space that causes molecules to move from onne region to another
  35. 3 types of transport
    • passive: do not use energy; moves down the gradient; dye in water
    • active: use energy; move against the gradient; use chemical energy to move molecules across membranes
    • other: types that use energy but not "through" membrane; endocytosis (moves fluid droplets or large particles across cell membranes)
  36. endocytosis
    • moves fluid droplets or large particles across cell membranes
    • pinocytosis: moves water into a cell
    • phagocytosis: moves solid material into a cell
    • receptor mediated endocytosis:
    • exocytosis: moves material out of the cell; waste/hormones etc.
  37. tissue
    a group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit
  38. 4 types of animal tissue:
    • epithelial
    • muscle
    • nervous
    • connective
  39. epithelial tissue
    covers all exposed body surfaces, including skin and lining of digestive tract
  40. muscle tissue
    attached to bones for movement, inside the digestive tract to move food, pumps blood in the heart
  41. nervous tissue
    sensory and motor neurons are found throughout the body, neurons are also concentrated in brain and spinal column.
  42. lumen
    the central opening of the intestine
  43. villi
    the projections of the inner lining of the intestine; greatly increase the surface area, increasing the rate of food absorption
  44. a single villus is made up of capillaries and lacteal, what are their functions?
    they both absorb nutrients in the intestines
  45. the function of the goblet cells:
    they act as tiny glands tha secrete mucus
  46. organ
    a group of tissues that accomplish a common function
  47. organ system
    a collection of organs working together to perform a major body function
  48. the digestive system; 5 organs and their processes
    • salivary glands/mouth: breakdown of food by chewing and the addition of a digestive enzyme (amylase)
    • esophagus: transfers food to the stomach
    • stomach: food is mixed with powerful acids and enzymes -- chemical and mechanical breakdown
    • small intestine: absorption of food into the bloodstream. additional enzymes added to break down food completely
    • large intentine (colon): water is reabsorbed into the body, some vitamines produced by bacteria are absorbed
  49. liver and pancreas (accessory digestive organs):
    Liver: Produces bile which is sent to the gall bladder. Bile will be delivered to the small intestine to help digest the fats in the food. Metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates and fats; helps regulate blood sugar levels

    Pancreas: secrete digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate that is able to stop the digestion process of stomach enyzmes. Secretes insulin which is required to regulate blood sugar levels.

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