Health Test 2

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Health Test 2
2012-03-12 16:54:44
Health Test

Health Test 2
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  1. Essential nutrients:
    • chemical substances used by the body to
    • build, maintain, and repair tissues and regulate body function; water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
  2. Macronutrients:
    water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat; used for energy and building new cells and facilitating chemical reactions; need large quantities
  3. Micronutrients:
    • vitamins and minerals;
    • need small amounts to regulate body functions
  4. What essential nutrient supplies energy?
    - Fats
  5. What is the function of water?
    Digest, absorb, and transport nutrients; regulates body temperature, carries waste products out of body, lubricates our moving parts.
  6. What role does fat play in our diet?
    Fat: concentrated energy source and principal form of energy in the body, provide essential fatty acids, play role in production of fatty acids and vitamin D, and provide material for cell membranes and myelin sheaths around nerve fibers.
  7. What role does protein play in our diet?
    Protein: builds and maintains muscles, bones, and other body tissues
  8. What role does fiber play in our diet?
    • Fiber: Dietary fiber makes stool soft/bulky for rapid movement in intestines and expelled easily; functional
    • fiber increase healthful effects of food; total fiber is combined dietary and functional fiber.
  9. What is the recommended daily intake of fat?-
    20-35% of daily caloric intake
  10. What fatty acids are considered most hazardous to health?
    Saturated fats
  11. The leading source of sugar in our diet is ___?-
    soft drinks
  12. Are saturated fats solid at room temperature?
    - Yes
  13. What are the main food related safety issues today?-
    Overconsumption of soft drinks, high-sodium diets, food allergies and food intolerances, energy bars/drinks, fast food, foodborne illness, artificial sweetener, genetically modified foods
  14. What percentage of Americans are overweight?
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    • : measure of body weight in relation to height
  16. What is the Body Mass Index used for?
    Used to estimate health significance of body weight
  17. What is a healthy BMI?-

  18. Obesity is defined as having a BMI higher than ___.

  19. Abdominal fat is considered a greater threat to health than hop and thigh fat because ___.
    - it breaks down more easily and enters the bloodstream more rapidly

  20. What is the greatest influence on the growth of weight problems in the US today?
    Parents (genes, teachings on how to eat, influence your neighborhood and education/occupation)

  21. For a person trying to lose weight, a weight loss of __ pounds a week is a healthy goal.
    - 1 to 2 pounds

  22. What is the best way to manage your weight?-
    Energy balance- relationship between caloric intake and output
  23. What is body image and how is it defined?-
    The mental representation that a person has of his/her own body, including perceptions, attitudes, thoughts, and emotions.
  24. Standards for diagnosing Anorexia nervosa:
    refusal to maintain body weight at/above a normal weight for age and height, intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation, denial of seriousness of low body weight, and amenorrhea (absence of at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles)
  25. Standards for diagnosing Bulimia nervosa:
    recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating lots of food in short period or lack of control during the episode), recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain (self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, medications, fasting, excessive exercise), episodes occur at least twice a week for 3 months, and self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.
  26. What is the most serious long-term side effect of severe calorie restriction in women?
    Osteoporosis- decreased bone calcium
  27. What are inappropriate methods of keeping weight low that are associated with bulimia nervosa?
    - self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, medications, diuretics, enemas, fasting, excessive exercise
  28. What are some common thought patterns associated with an eating disorder?
    Low self-esteem, self-critical attitude, belief in the importance of thinness, black-and-white thinking, feelings of emptiness, need for power and control, difficulty expressing feelings, lack of coping skills, lack of trust in self and others, perfectionism

  29. What are some physical health problems associated with anorexia nervosa?
    P. 180- increased risk of infection, low body temperature, electrolyte disturbance, dry, cold, discolored skin, weakness, swollen legs, cold feet, decreased brain size, low energy, depressed mood, loss of coordination, dizziness, fainting, poor sleep, low blood pressure, cardiac arrest, bloating constipation, kidney failure, infertility, lack of menstruation, decline in testosterone, decline in sex drive, loss of calcium, osteoporosis

  30. Which eating disorder is most associated with an electrolyte imbalance?-
    Anorexia nervosa
  31. What are the health effects from purging food after a meal?-
    Cardiorespiratory disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and cancers (same effects as obesity)
  32. How are eating disorders treated?
    • P. 182- Recognizing the problem, teach better stress coping mechanisms, could use multimodality teams.
    • 1st step is to stabilize weight
    • 2nd is psychotherapy, behavioral relearning and modification, and nutritional rehabilitation and education

  33. During the early twentieth century people were more likely to die from ___ disease that from heart disease.-
  34. Be able to identify physical and chemical barriers against infection.• Physical:
    Skin, mucous membranes (in mouth lungs nasal passages, vagina), hair (nose, ears), lungs have cough reflex and cilia
  35. Be able to identify physical and chemical barriers against infection.
    Saliva, stomach acid, bile and enzymes in small intestine, acidic ph in vagina, fatty acids and lysozyme in pores and hair follicles
  36. An organism that causes disease is a __.-
  37. How do pathogens enter a body?
    - Skin-to-skin contact, genital-to-genital contact, inhalation of respiratory droplets, exposure to blood products, and insect/animal bites.
  38. What infectious disease is transmitted by a mosquito bite?-
  39. Be able to identify the stages of infection.
    Incubation period (no symptoms)
  40. Prodromal period
    (vague sense of not being well)
  41. Invasive Phase
    (full-blown illness)
  42. Acme
    (peak of disease)
  43. Decline phase
    (symptoms brought under control)
  44. Convalescent period
    (body is repairing damage)
  45. Sequelae
    (remaining symptoms the body cant repair)
  46. Why should you always finish an antibiotic prescription?-
    A few resistant bacteria can survive and grow, causing an increase in antibiotic resistance. Can make you sick again.
  47. What is the leading cause of death in the US?-
    Cardiovascular disease
  48. What is another name for heart attack?-
    Myocardial infarction (MI)
  49. Be able to identify symptoms of a heart attack.-
    Chest pain, pressure or fullness or squeezing in mid-portion of chest, pain in jaw or shoulders or arms or back or stomach, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, cold sweat, nausea, or light-headedness.
  50. What is the optimal range for blood pressure? Systolic less than
  51. What is the optimal range for blood pressure? Diastolic less than
  52. Systole:
    period when the heart contracts
  53. Diastole:
    Period when the heart relaxes between contractions and refills with blood.
  54. Which ethnic population group has the highest rate of hypertension?-
    African americans
  55. What are the major controllable risk factors known to increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease?-
    Tobacco use
  56. HDL (high-density lipoproteins):
    “good” cholesterol, lipoproteins that help clear cholesterol from cells and atherosclerotic deposits and transport it back to the liver for recycling
  57. LDL (low-density lipoproteins):
    “bad” cholesterol, lipoproteins that accumulate in plaque and contribute to atherosclerosis
  58. A desirable level of total cholesterol for adults is less than ___ mg/deciliter.- 200
  59. What determines which type of cancer an individual is diagnosed with?-
    Cancer is classified according to the tissue in which it originates.
  60. Cancer is classified according to the tissue in which it originates. Called
    the primary site.
  61. Benign:
    Tumor that grows slowly and is unlikely to spread.
  62. Malignant:
    Tumor that is capable of invading surrounding tissue and spreading.
  63. What is the most common form of cancer?-
    Carcinomas (arise from epithelial tissue, 80-90% of all cancers)
  64. What impact does tobacco have on a cancer?-
    It increases risk of cancer in the mouth, throat, lungs, and esophagus by direct exposure to the chemicals in tobacco; increases the risk of other cancers due to chemicals in tobacco being absorbed into the bloodstream and travel to other sites.
  65. What effect does diet have on cancer?-
    Diets in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains have carotenoids and decrease risk of lung, colon, rectal, breast, stomach, and ovarian cancers; diets high in fiber decrease risk of breast, rectal, pharyngeal, and stomach cancer; diets high in fat increase risk of cancers (breast, colon, prostate); foods with toxins can increase risk of cancer.
  66. What is the leading cause of cancer death?-
    Lung cancer
  67. Are all tumors cancerous?-
  68. What cancer is the number one cancer killer of women?
    Lung cancer
  69. Does melanoma usually appear in a mole?
  70. Which cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men (excluding skin cancer)?
    Testicular cancer
  71. What are the ABCDs of skin cancer?
    • A- Asymmetry: one half unlike the other
    • B-Border irregularity: uneven, scalloped edge rather than clearly defined border
    • C-Color variation: Color uniform or vary from one area to another
    • D-Diameter larger than .25 inch: At the widest point, is it as large/larger than a pencil eraser
  72. What does metastasis mean?-
    • When a cancerous cell at a new site can grow and become
    • a secondary tumor; the cancer spreads