Human Sexual Behavior Ch. 6
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Female Masturbation and Orgasm
Masturbation is the manual stimualation by one's partner, oral pleasuring, penile-vaginal intercourse, dreaming, fantasy, and, in some women, breast stimulation can all result in completion of the response cycle. Some women never experience orgasm while others have mutiple before dropping below the plateau level of sexual arousal.
Male Refractory Period
A recovery stage in which there is a temporary inability to reach orgasm.
Sexual Differences & Visual Erotica
Vision is second only to touch in providing stimuli that most people find sexually arousing. Recent evidence suggests that women respond to visual erotica as much as men do.
A neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus that influences sexual response and interpersonal attraction.
Antiandrogens drastically reduce the amount of testosterone circulating in the bloodstream. One of these drugs, medroxyprogesterone acetate ( MPA; also known by its trade name, Depo- Provera), has received a great deal of media attention in the United States. A number of studies have found that MPA and other antiandrogens are often effective in reducing both sexual interest and sexual activity in human males ( and females) ( Crenshaw & Goldberg, 1996; Kafka, 2009). However, altering testosterone levels is not a completely effective treatment for sex offenders, especially in cases where sexual assaults stem from nonsexual motives, such as anger or the wish to exert power and control over another person ( Kelly, 2008).
Androgens & Male Sexual Motivation
The dominant androgen in both males and females is testosterone. This research indicates that testosterone generally has a greater effect on male sexual desire ( libido) than on sexual functioning ( Crenshaw, 1996).
Hypothalamus & Pleasure
Several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in sexual functioning. For instance, researchers have reported increased sexual activity in rats, including erec-tions and ejaculations, triggered by stimulation in both anterior and posterior regions of the hypothalamus. When certain parts of the hypothala-mus are surgically destroyed, the sexual behavior of both males and females of several species can be dramatically reduced. One region in the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus, the medial preoptic area ( MPOA), has been implicated in sexual arousal and sexual behavior. Electrical stimulation of the MPOA increases sexual behavior, and damage to this area reduces or eliminates sexual activity in males of a wide variety of species.
Odors & Sexual Arousal
A person’s sexual history and cultural conditioning often infl uence what smells he or she fi nds arousing. We typically learn through experience to view certain odors as erotic and others as offensive. From this perspective there may be nothing intrinsic to the fragrance of genital secretions that causes them to be perceived as either arousing or distasteful. We might also argue the contrary— that the smell of genital secretions would be universally exciting to humans were it not for conditioning that taught some people to view it as offensive. This latter interpretation is supported by the fact that some societies openly recognize the value of genital smells as a sexual stimulant.
Blood Pressure Medications & Erections
Many antihypertensives, drugs used for treating high blood pressure, have been experimentally demonstrated to seriously inhibit erection and ejaculation, reduce the intensity of orgasm in male subjects, and reduce sexual interest in both sexes.
Sexuality In Aging Women
In general, all phases of the response cycle continue to occur for older women but with somewhat decreased intensity.
Orgasm In Aging Males
Most changes in the sexual response cycle of older men involve alterations in the intensity and duration of response.Most aging males continue to experience considerable pleasure from their orgasmic responses. In fact, 73% of older men in one study reported that orgasm was “ very important” in their sexual experiences. However, they may note a decline in intensity. Frequently absent are the sensations of ejaculatory inevi-tability that correspond with the emission phase of ejaculation. The number of mus-cular contractions occurring during the expulsion phase are typically reduced and so is the force of ejaculation.
It is more common for women to have multiple orgasms. Sometimes they may have 5 or 6 orgasms within minutes. Although women are capable, many don't experience multiple orgasms. Men can have mulitple orgams, but it may take a while for another one. Men have also ben mentally conditioned through masturbation to hurry up and be done before they get caught.
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