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pollan and obesity
government 1970 policy of subsidies promoted over production of grain and people thusly have become obese
the use of coal has increased standard of living but there is not enough to keep it going, we are know longer happy with just growth is not easily replaced
white argues and criticism of whites argument.
- modern sience is an extapolation of christian, as the most anthropocentric religion, natural theology. thinks we should share a view similiar to St. Francis
- we should change our fundamentals so non human things can have instrumental value
- science has not been all bad
callicott arguement regarding others putting down applied ethics
- philosophy should respect applied ethics.
- reasons matter and philosophers should exploring issues that might not seem important to the public
how does callicott see white
callicott sees whites arguement as an example of what we should be doing in environmental ethics
callicotts suggestions for moral theory
- we should challenge inherited beliefs about nature(christian based)
- callicott thinks we need new natural and moral philosophy based on science.
- an evolutionary and ecological world view
evolutionary and ecological world view perspectives
- evolutionary- we have vlue similiar to every other creature
- ecological- non humans have intrinsic value
a being has moral standing if it has a right to be treated with respect
self conscious moral agency
we make decisions based on reasons and hold peopl accountable for the decisions they make
the capability to act morally or immorrally
singers arguement how does he think we should treat animals and general moral theory that would describe his views
- all animals have moral standing and deserve respect, because animals have the ability to feel pain and pleasure as humans do
- he does not think animals deserve equal treatment he does think they deserve equal consideration.
critism of singers arguement
singer does not go far enough
- environmentalis and conservationist should not be concerned with animal rights nature is cruel and we should not stop nature's cruelty
- if species deserve rights it would be independant of there status on the endangered species list or how we feel about them, but we do not act in this way
Rolston arguement how is it that things in his case have value
animals defend their own lives because they have a value of their own, he says flowers and plants cannot care so why should we.
taylor argues how does he view humans
- respect of every living organism because all living things have a good of there own stones soil and mountains do not have a good of their own
- humans are not superior beings
having a good of their own
he view that animals and humans have equal inherant value egalitarianism
- can one argue eqalitarianism and also for human superiority.
- schmidtz thinks that some animals are higher in terms of moral worth because they have more. plant chimp to humans
singer and schmidtz compared.
schmidtz thinks of organisms as having instrumental value where singer thinks animals have moral standing.
schmidtz's view of equalitarianism
equalitarianism is wrong because it takes down ans species we belief is special. human chimps dolphins
deep ecology and assertion
- looks at the intrinsic value of all human and non-human life intrinsic relations
- all living thinks have equal rights to live and prosper biospherical equalitarianism
according to deep ecologist what is important regarding species
diversity it enhances survival
sobers approach to environment
we should develop aesthetic respect for nature it desearves it because it is beautiful.
criticism of sobers aesthetic approach
- it seems to be makin a stram man of environmental postions as few hold such positions
- would aesthetics go far enough
ecodeminism what are the two ways of the connection as well
a correlation between the poor treatment of women and poor treatment of the environment.
- some believe it is something in mens psych
- some believe women have been identified with nature and men have been identified with culture and intellect and spirituallity
argue for equal rights for women
argue for a change in perspective. changing public will not make a difference if the private remains the same