The Atmosphere Chapter 15

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mmbarton
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141017
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The Atmosphere Chapter 15
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2012-03-11 19:12:48
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Atmosphere Chapter 15
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The Atmosphere Chapter 15
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  1. _________ is a mixture of gases that surrounds Earth
    Atmosphere
  2. The oxygen you breathe makes up a little more than ______ of the atmosphere.
    20%
  3. Most common atmospheric gas
    Nitrogen
  4. ___________ is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface.
    Air pressure
  5. Tropo means “turning” or “change,” and the ______________ is the layer where gases turn and mix.
    troposphere
  6. Strato- means “layer,” and the _________________ is the sphere where gases are layered and do not mix very much.
    stratosphere
  7. Meso- means “middle,” and the _______________ is the middle layer.
    mesosphere
  8. thermo- means “heat,” and the _______________ is the sphere where temperatures are highest.
    thermosphere
  9. Location of ozone layer
    stratosphere
  10. located in the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere, nitrogen and oxygen atoms absorb harmful solar energy.
    ionosphere
  11. ions radiate energy as shimmering lights in the ionosphere called ____________.
    auroras
  12. ____________ is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves.
    Radiation
  13. _____________ is the transfer of thermal energy through a material.
    conduction
  14. _____________is the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas.
    Convection
  15. The ____________ ___________ is the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth.
    greenhouse effect
  16. The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure is called ___________.
    wind
  17. Pressure Belts or Hadley Cells are found every __________ lattitude.
    30°
  18. The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean currents due to the Earth’s rotation is called the ___________ __________.
    Coriolis effect
  19. The wind belts that extend from the poles to 60° latitude in both hemispheres are called the __________ __________.
    polar easterlies
  20. The wind belts found between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres are called the _____________.
    westerlies
  21. In both hemispheres, the winds that blow from 30° latitude almost to the equator are called __________ _________.
    trade winds
  22. The trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meet in an area around the equator called the _________. In the ____________, there is very little wind because the warm, rising air creates an area of low pressure.
    doldrums
  23. At about 30° north and 30° south latitude, sinking air creates an area of high pressure. The winds at these locations are weak. These areas arecalled the __________ latitudes.Most of the world’s deserts are located in the _________ latitudes because the sinking air is very dry.
    horse
  24. The _____ __________ are narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower strato sphere. These winds can reach maximum speeds of 400 km/h. Unlike other global winds, the _____ __________ do not follow regular paths around the Earth.
    jet streams
  25. During the day, the sun warms the air along the mountain slopes. This warm air rises up the mountain slopes, creating a _______ _______.
    valley breeze
  26. At nightfall, the air along the mountain slopes cools. This cool air moves down the slopes into the valley, producing a _______ ___________.
    mountain breeze
  27. Local winds generally move short distances and can blow from _____ direction.
    any
  28. During the day, the land heats up faster than the water, so the air above the land becomes warmer than the air above the ocean. The warm land air rises, and the cold ocean air flows in to replace it.This is callec an ________ ________
    sea breeze
  29. At night, the land cools faster than water, so the wind blows toward the ocean. This is called a ______ ______.
    land breeze
  30. _____ ________is the contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources.
    Air pollution
  31. Pollutants that are put directly into the air by human or natural activity are ___________ __________.
    primary pollutants
  32. Pollutants that form when primary pollutants react with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances, such as water vapor, are_______ __________.
    secondary pollutants
  33. Precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains acids from air pollution is called _________ ___________.
    acid precipitation
  34. The ________ hole allows more UV radiation to reach the Earth’s surface.
    ozone

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