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Recognize the dates of 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. (Sect. 16.2)
The dating of 1 Timothy and Titus is ca 64 AD and of 2 Timothy is ca 67 AD
State (in 1 phrase) the common theme of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. (Sect. 16.3.4)
Ordering the church to combat false teachers and their teaching.
For the semantic difficulties in 1 Tim 2:8-15, recognize the interpretations of the following words that indicate Paul permitted women to assume roles of pastoral ministry: “in quietness,” “be quiet,” “full submission,” and “assume authority.” (Sect. 16.4.3)
“in quietness,” or meekness, en hesychia. This should be interpreted as a “quiet spirit” or “respectful attitude,” as Paul uses the term elsewhere: vv. 1-2; 1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:12. When Paul wants to say “silence,” meaning absence of speech, he uses sigao (Rom. 16:25; 1 Cor. 14:28, 30, 34). Therefore, “in quietness” “does not mean “silence.”· Her learning is further qualified as being in “full submission” (i.e., respectful submission), offsetting the insubordination of certain women.· v. 12 “I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority (authentein) over a man.” (This word appears only once in the Greek NT.) We need to know how this word was used before and after NT times. In doing so, it was commonly used to describe someone dominating, controlling or dictating, rather than merely exerting authority. This is according to Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed. (N.Y.: United Bible Societies, 1988-1989), 91; Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the N.T. and Other Early Christian Literature, 3d ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2000), 150. Wayne Grudem et al contest this.William Mounce, who embraces a restrictive view of women in this passage, concedes, “If it [authenteo] means ‘to domineer’ in a negative sense, then it is prohibiting a certain type of authoritative teaching, one that is administered in a negative, domineering, coercive way, thus leaving the door open for women to exercise teaching authority in a proper way over men.” Pastoral Epistles, Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 46 (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000), p.128.The cultural and historical background of the text indicates that one of the Ephesian church’s problems was false teachers. Some women were unstable and vulnerable to certain patterns of sin in the church. False teachers would mark and train them as their mouthpieces. Paul wants these women to stop being influenced by false teachers and learn the truth in quietness/calmness and in full submission to those teaching them.· The NIV wrongly renders the Greek einai en hesychia as: “she must be silent”; “she must be quiet” (v. 12). But einai en hesychia is more literally, “let her be in quietness/calmness,” echoing the beginning phrase of v.11 in the Greek text.
4. Recognize Paul’s strategy for the church in the world in Titus. (Sect. 16.3.2 & 16.5.5)
Titus, who was deployed to serve newer churches, was given the mission to “straighten out what was left unfinished and appoint elders in every town” as Paul had directed him (1:5). This was to prevent false teaching from taking hold and to train the church to walk uprightly and do good works as a witness to the outside community (“make the teaching about God our Savior attractive,” 2:10).
Strategy for the church in the world: good deeds and respectable households help advance the gospel rather than bring it into disrepute. Paul’s principle: Do what advances the gospel.
5. Recognize the elements of and conclusions regarding Paul’s modified Jewish monotheism in each key Christological passage (1 Cor. 8:1-6; Phil. 2:5-11, and Col. 1:15-20) and recognize the summary and conclusion regarding his modified Jewish monotheism. (Sect. 17.1 & 17.3)
1.1 Key Christological Passages 1.1.1 1 Corinthians 8:1-6 22.214.171.124 Eating food sacrificed to idols and God’s love, vv.1-3 126.96.36.199 Eating food sacrificed to idols and monotheism, vv. 4-6· Paul offers the classic Jewish polemic against pagan polytheism: “An idol is nothing at all in the world”; “There is no God but one,” v. 4· The Hebrew/Jewish shema is the heart of Judaism, recited by devout Jews from the time of Paul to today—combining the confession of monotheism with the command to love God with all one’s heart in Deuteronomy 6:4ff.: “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One”; “You shall love the Lord your God…”· Paul, in contrast to the pagan “many gods” and “many Lords,” writes: for us there is “one God” and “one Lord,” but the “Lord” now is Jesus Christ. This is how Paul expands his Jewish monotheism.
- 188.8.131.52 ConclusionThe Risen Lord revealed to Paul that the One true and living God is both “Father” (a concept almost absent from the OT and rabbinic literature) and “Lord” (Jesus himself, cf. Romans 10:9). Here is complex monotheism. Jesus is God, but God is more than Jesus. 1.1.2 Philippians 2:5-11 184.108.40.206 At the end of the passage, Paul gives his conclusion, vv. 10-11He cites one of the most polemical passages in the OT concerning God’s sovereignty and uniqueness over against polytheism and idolatry, Isaiah 45:23: “Before me every knee will bow, by me every tongue will swear.”This follows Isa. 45:21-22: “There is no God apart from me, a righteous God and a Savior, there is none but me. Turn to me and be saved, all you ends of the earth; for I am God and there is no other.” 220.127.116.11 Here, in Philippians, Paul tells us that God has given a fuller revelation of himself in what Jesus has done, i.e., the one true God shows himself as self-giving love in his Son, vv. 6-9· Jesus was in the form/nature of God, v.6· Jesus did not consider equality with God something to be grasped or held onto (in position, not nature), v. 6· Rather, he poured himself out (Gordon Fee) [not “emptied himself,” which raises all kinds of issues like what did he empty himself of?] by taking on human nature, becoming a servant, being obedient to death, even the shameful death of the cross, vv. 7-9 18.104.22.168 ConclusionWhy has Christ been so highly exalted? He has done what only God can do, and he has given us the supreme revelation of God by dying on the cross. The same God who unilaterally bound himself to Abraham and his descendants in a covenant of love (unconditional and perpetual), the same God who took an oath of death on himself if he didn’t fulfill its stipulations (Genesis 15), is the same One who came to us in Christ Jesus to die the death we deserved to die in order to fulfill the promises made to Abraham, that he would become a great people and that all the families (people groups) of the earth would be blessed (Gen. 12:1-3).That Jesus is (in later theological language) the Second Person or member of the Godhead (along with the Father and the Spirit), and has the fullness of God (the Trinity) en toto, within himself, has crucial implications for our theology of the Trinity. 1.1.3 Colossians 1:15-20 22.214.171.124 Form of this passageThis passage is a poem (perhaps a hymn) with two major parallel sections (vv. 15-17 and vv. 18-20). The structure is ABBA. A vv. 15-16B v. 17B v. 18, a, bA vv. 18c-20 [A] 15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. [B] 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. [B] 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, [A] so that in everything he might have the supremacy. 19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.· “The two sections are thematically parallel, each beginning with a statement about Christ, amplifying it with the title “firstborn,” (the firstborn in a family has preeminence), and then explaining it. (“That,” hoti, 16a/19a) in relation to Christ’s position vis-à-vis the created order.” N.T. Wright, The Climax of the Covenant, p.105)
- 126.96.36.199 Conclusions· Christ is everything claimed for Jewish Wisdom theology and more.· Christ is identified with the God of creation and redemption.· Christ is to be distinguished from the Father, but not as in paganism, where different gods are given different tasks, but rather in the framework of Jewish monotheism.· Within this radical redefinition of monotheism, there is a radical redefinition of election – the people of God are now the people of Jesus Christ.· There is no dualism in Paul’s cosmology between creation and redemption. The same agent is responsible for both and ushers in the new creation. (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15)· As the “image of the invisible God” (v. 15), the pre-existent Christ has become the perfect human being, becoming – in some sense – what he always was: “the preexistent Lord of the world has become the human Lord of the world, and in so doing, has reflected fully, for the eyes of the world to see, the God whose human image he has now come to bear.” (N.T. Wright, Climax of the Covenant, p.116) Cf. 2 Cor. 4:6
- Summary and Conclusion
- 1.1.1 Paul and the early believers were monotheists. 1.1.2 Paul modified this monotheism to include Jesus and the Holy Spirit.
6. TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the three main points about the Presence of God in the Old Testament and major ways that the Spirit is the renewed Presence of God in Paul’s writings.
(See Chapter 2, Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God by Gordon Fee)
TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize Paul’s three images for the community of the Spirit and recognize the Spirit’s role in each image.
(See Chapter 6, Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God by Gordon Fee)