Psych 41 Chapter 4

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Psych 41 Chapter 4
2012-03-11 20:24:28
Preschool years

PreSchool years
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  1. Preoperational Stage
    • from age 2 to 7: The stage
    • in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning merges,
    • and the use of concepts increases.
  2. operations
    Organized, formal, logical mental processes.
  3. symbolic function
    The ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that not physically present. Ex: toy car= real car.
  4. centration
    • When a child "centers" on an aspect of a problem, is that considered to be a benefit or a limitation of cognition? It is a limitation and key element of the preoperational period. Usually focusing on superficial elements
    • (ex: cat wearing dog mask) and ignoring others which lead to inaccuracy. Might be related to lack of conservation.
  5. conservation
    • The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of object.
    • Ex: short vs. tall glass.
  6. transformation
    the process in which one state is changed into another. How is transformation related to (de)centration? Ex: pencil falling down. They are able to recall and remember the transform of the pencil falling, no longer centered on just the beginning and the end.
  7. egocentric
    • Thinking that does NOT take account of other’s viewpoints.
    • Two forms:
    • 1. Lack of awareness that others see things form diff perspectives
    • 2. failure to realize that others hold thoughts/feelings that differ from others.
  8. Give some examples of Egocentrism in preschoolers' thought and behavior.
    Ex: opening gift of socks with a frowned face not aware of revealing his feelings to the others, he doesn’t think of the impact it will have on others.
  9. intuitive thought
    Use of primitive reasoning and they’re eager to gain of world knowledge. Curiosity grows.

    Ex: they realize pushing on pedals make bicycles move, or pressing remote buttons changes TV channels.
  10. “Functionality”:
    idea that actions are related to one another in fixed patterns.
  11. identity
    Understanding that certain things stay the same regardless of change in shape, size or appearance.

    Ex: ball of clay and snake clay.
  12. autobiographical memory
    Memory of particular events in one’s own life
  13. memory scripts
    Broad representations in memory of events and order in which they occur. Ex: Seeing Server, Ordering food then eating. Scripted memories are recalled with less accuracy than unscripted ones. Preschooler’s memory are susceptible to suggestion.
  14. Forensic Developmental Psychology
    It focuses on the reliability of children’s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system when they are the victims or witnesses
  15. Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development: Taking Culture into Account
    Vigotsky emphasizes the role of culture and society in children's cognitive development. Cognition proceeds because of social interactions where partners jointly work to solve problems.

    (Piaget focused on independence of children to learn cognition)
  16. Vigotsky's zone of proximal development
    The level of which a child can ALMOST but NOT fully perform a task independently, but can do with assistance of someone competent.
  17. Scaffolding:
    the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth. This allows child clues to complete the task that fit child’s level of development and also to model behavior of the adult.
  18. syntax
    The way you can combine words and phrases to form sentences.
  19. private speech
    Twenty to 60 percent of what children say is private speech. Private Speech is children’s speech that is spoken and directed to themself.

    Vigotsky suggests it is a guide between behavior and thought. It is a forerunner to the internal dialogues we use when we reason with ourselves

    Adults do this when telling themselves to "calm down"
  20. pragmatics
    The aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.

    Ex: different language on playground vs. in class. Or saying TY in response to a gift.
  21. social speech
    A speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by the person. It begins at age 3. Before that they use private speech, not caring of others.
  22. Psychosocial development
    encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society, and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior.
  23. Initiative vs. Guilt stage
    Erikson proposed that children experience the Initiative vs. Guilt stage. From age 3 to 6

    The conflict of independence of action which can sometimes have negative results such as guilt if they fail to succeed.

  24. self-concept
    The identity of seto of beliefts about what one is like as an individual. “I’m a good runner”
  25. Collectivistic:
    individuals that regard themselves as part of a larger social network/interconnected vs. Individualistic
  26. Individualistic
    emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness and autonomy (U.S).
  27. race dissonance
    Phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values of people. Ex: black children choosing to play with white dolls
  28. gender.
    The sense of being a male or female
  29. a gender schema
    Cognitive framework that organizes info relevant to gender, they encompass the “rules” about what is appropriate for each gender.
  30. gender constancy
    When does it develop? The realization that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed and unchangeable biological factors. It develops by the age 4 or 5.
  31. Describe Sandra Bem's theory of androgyny.
    Androgynous is a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes. If used, this is one way to get rid of gender schemas. Ex: females can be tender, caring but also independent and competitive/assertive.
  32. functional play
    typical of 3-year-olds. Simple, repetitive activities such as pushing cars on floor, skipping and jumping. Something active.
  33. constructive play
    typical of 4-year-olds. Children manipulating objects to produce or build something. Ex: Legos, puzzles.
  34. What skills are cultivated by constructive play?
    Gives them a chance to practice their physical and cognitive skills and fine muscle movements. Experience in problem solving (puzzles).
  35. parallel play
    Actions in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other.
  36. onlooker play?
    Children simply watch others play, but don’t participate. Passive.
  37. associative play
    Two or more children interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing. (more sophisticated)
  38. cooperative play
    Children genuinely play with one another, taking rurns, playing games of devising contests
  39. theory-of-mind
    Knowledge and beliefs about how the mind operates.

    • Children are able to come up with explanations for how others think and the reasons for their behaving the way they do. Ex: mom is made because she’s late for her appointment.
  40. false-belief test
    Preschoolers see maxi (doll) place chocolate in cabinet, but then when she is gone an adult moves chocolate. 3 years old believe that the doll will look for the chocolate in a new place (false) and a 4 year old will realize that the doll will look for it in the cabinet.
  41. authoritarian parenting style
    • Controlling, punitive, rigid and cold. Word is law, value unquestioning obedience.
    • Children’s characteristics: tend to be withdrawn, little sociability, not very friendly, and often behave uneasily around peers. Girls are dependent on parents and boys are hostile.
  42. permissive parenting style
    • Lax and inconsistent feedback. Require little of their children and don’t seem themselves as holding much responsibility for how their children turn out…no limits/control on children’s behavior.
    • Children’s characteristics: Dependent, moody, low in social skills and self-control. Share many characteristics of children of authoritarian parents.
  43. uninvolved parenting style
    • Show virtually no interest in children, displaying indifferent rejecting behavior. They are detached emotionally, and see their role as no more than feeding, clothing, and providing shelter. Extreme form: neglect—child abuse.
    • Characteristics of children? Worst off: show disrupted, emotional development. Feel unloved and emotionally detached, and they phys/cognitive development may be impeded.
  44. authoritative parenting style.
    • Firm yet consistent limits, relatively strict but loving and emotionally supportive. They try to reason with their children, explaining why they should behave in a particular way. Communicate the lesion for any punishment they will impose
    • Children’s characteristics: Fare the best: they are generally independent, friendly, self-assertive, and cooperative. Strong motivation to achieve and are typically successful and likable. Good behavior with relationships and emotional self-regulation.
  45. cycle of violence hypothesis?
    Theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer from will predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children.
    is abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.
    refers to the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage.
  48. moral development
    Changes in people’s sense of justice and of what is right/wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues.
  49. Explain Piaget's 3 stages of moral
    • 1. heteronomous morality
    • 2. incipient cooperation
    • 3. autonomous cooperation
  50. heteronomous morality
    Rules are seen as unchangeable/invariant, lasts from age 4-7, children play games rigidly assuming that there Is only one way to play. Although they don’t fully grasp game rules.
  51. incipient cooperation
    Last from ages 7-10, children’s games become more clearly social, they learn the actual rules and play according to shared knowledge. Rules are still seen as unchangeable and there is a “right” way to play the game.
  52. autonomous cooperation
    Begins at age 10. Become fully aware that formal game rule can be modified if the players agree, this is the beginning of the understanding that rules of law are created by people and are subject to change according to the will of the people.
  53. social-learning approach
    Approach that focuses more on how the environment in which preschoolers operate produces a prosocial behavior—helping behavior that benefits others.
  54. abstract modeling
    The process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles.
  55. empathy
    Understanding of what another individual feels— some developmentalists believe that empathy underlies some kinds of moral behavior.
  56. aggression
    Intentional injury or harm to another person
  57. emotional self-regulation
    Age 2; the ability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity which includes talking it out.
  58. Instrumental Aggression” vs. “Relational Aggression
    boys wanting a toy “Instrumental Aggression” vs. girls “Relational Aggression”-nonphysical through name-calling, withholding friendship to make the victim feel bad.
  59. Bandura 's “Bobo doll” experiment
    Imitation of adults behavior with doll