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WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES?
- *learned fears and expections
- *emotional responses
- *cognitive processing and pereptual interpreatations
(1) level of analysis
NAME THE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS.
- 1)Biological Influences
- 2)Psychological Influences
- 3) Social-Cultural Influences
WHO IS ALDRED KINSEY?
Study sexualities (1940)
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
Science of behavior and mental process
WHAT ARE THE SCHOOLS OF THOUGHTS?
- GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
- HUMANISIC PSYCHOLOGY
- PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY
WHAT IS AN EEG, PET SCAN, fMRI, AND MRI?
- EEG (electroencephalogrm)-electrcal activity from the brain
- PET(Positron emission tomography)-brain activity by glucose
- MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging)-soft tissues brain anatomy
- fMRI(functional MRI)-bloodflow brain function
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ANALYSIS AND WHAT DOES IT FORM?
- Biopsychosocial approach-integrated approach
- Levels of analysis- complementary views for analyzing any given phenomenon
- Levels of analysis:Biological approach
- Psychological influences
- Social-cultural influences
Study of the brain activity linked with mental function of the brain
HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE?
- 1) Electrical impluses travel down a neuron's axon until reaching a tiny junction known as a synapse.
- 2)Action potential axon terminal stimulates release of neurotransmitter molecules. Molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. Electrically charged atoms to enter neuron and excite or inhibit new action potential.
- 3) Reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters-reuptake
Increased scientific knowledge
Solve practical problems
- *Natural selection of traits
- *Genetic predispositions
- *Brain Mechanisms
- *Hormonal Influences
(1) level of analysis
- *Prescene of others
- *Cultural societal family expectations
- *Peer other group influences
- *compelling models
(1) level of analysis
Influential theory/Psychoantlytic Pyschology
emotional responses to childhood experiences and unconscious thought process affect behavior
CARL ROGERS AND ABRAHAM MASLOW
WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COUNSELING, CLINICAL AND PSYCHIATRISTS?
- Counseling- assist people with problems
- Clinical studies, assesses and treats
- Psychiatry-RX. meds
an observtion technique in whch one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
- 1) Theories
- 3)Research and observations
WHAT ARE SENSORY NEURONS?
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
- 1) Curious
- 2) Scrutinize ideas
- 3) Open-minded humility
WHAT IS APHASIA?
Impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area(impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
DESCRIBE IN A SIMPLE WAY THE BRAIN AREAS INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE.
- 1)Visual cortex: recieves written words as visual stimulation
- 2) Angular gyrus: transforms visual representations into an auditory code
- 3)Wernicke's area: interacts auditory code
- 4)Broca's area: cotrols speech muscles via the motor cortex
- 5) Motor cortex: word is pronounced
DEFINE BROCA'S AREA AND LOCATION
Located left frontal lobe
controls language expression-an area usually in he left frontal lobe, directs muscle movement involved in speech
Damage to this area: struggle to speak words
DEFINE WERNICKE'S AREA AND LOCATION.
located in the left temporal lobe
controls language reception
Damage to this area: people could speak only meaningless words
LOCATION AND DEFINE ANGULAR GYRUS.
controls reading aloud
receives visual info from visual area and recodes it into an auditory form which Werncke's area uses to derive its meaning.
Damage to this area: leaves a perso able to speak and understand but unable to read.
PHILLIP VOGEL AND JOSEPH BOGEN
Severing corpus callosum
divided brains of cats and monkeys
resulted in decreased or eliminated seizure activity and developed split brains
DEFINE ASSOCITION AREAS. WHAT DO THEY DO?
areas of the cerbral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking
linked to sensory imputs with stored memories
CANNOT be neatly mapped
3/4 of te cerebral cortex that is uncommitted to sensory or muscular activity
DESCRIBE A MOTOR NEURON
- Dendrites: receives messages from other cells
- Myelin Sheath: covers the axon
- Terminal Branches of axon: forms junctions with other cells
- Neural Impulse: Action potential
- Axon: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands
- Cell body: life support
JOHN B. WASTON AND B.F. SKINNER
- redefined psychology
WHAT ARE NEUROTRANSMITTERS?
Neurotransmitters-chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
They travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
DEFINE THE RETICULAR FORMATION?
Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in arousal
(Severed cats R.F. puts it into a coma)
WHAT IS REWARD DEFICIENCY SYNDROME?
- Natural brain systems pleasure
- crave whatever provides missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings
JAMES OLDS AND PETER MILNER
Reward and pleasure area of the brain
experiment-rats and electrodes in hypothalamus
DEFINE WEBER'S LAW.
Perceived as different we need 2 stimuli that must differ constant amount
WHAT ARE THE BRAIN STRUCTURES AND THERE FUNCTIONS?
- Amygdala: emotion
- Hippocampus: memory
- Corpus Callosum: axons fibers connecting hemispheres
- Thalamus: relays messages between brain centers and cerbral cortex "Switch Board"
- Hypothalamus: maintenance functions emotion and reward
- Pituitary: master gland
- Recticular formation: arousal
- Medulla:heartbeat and breathing
- Spinal cord: pathway to brain simple reflexes
- Cerebellum: movement, balance and memories
- Cerebral cortex: control info-processing center
Computed measure how scores vary around the average
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE FOREBRAIN?
- Limbic system: emotions and memory
- Thalamus:"Switchboard"-sends messages to sites
- Hypothalamus: maintanence functions governs endocrine system
- Pituitary Gland:"Master Gland"
- Cerebral cortex: thin layer that covers cerebral hemisphere
WHA IS THE IMPORTANCE OF A CASE STUDY?
examines one individual in depth directions for further study- what can happen
WHAT DID EDWARD TITCHENER STUDY?
structural elements of the mind
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE OLDER BRAIN STRUCTURE?
- "OLDER PART"
- Brainstem: central core
- Medulla: base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing
- Pons-coordinate movement
- Reticular formation-nerve network, arousal
- cerebellum-"little brain"-rear of the brainstem, sensory, movement and balance
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VARIABLES?
- experimental group-exposed to the treatment
- Control group- not exposed
- Independent variable- manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
- dependent variable-variable change
- Psychology first textbook
- tutored 1st female 1890
- "man card taken away b/c of tutoring a female"
Textbook: "The Principes of Psychology"
- studied under William James
- 1st A.P.A female president
- Harvard University
MARGARET FLOY WASHBURN
- 1ST Women to recevie PHD
- 2ND president introduced in A.P.A that was female
"The Animal Mind"-Textbook
Experiment with white lab coats, dogs and bells
- Classical Conditioning
- Observable Behavior
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without controlling the situations
- Parent-child interactions
- self-seating patterns in the lunchroom
WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGY'S MAIN SUBFIELDS?
- Basic research
- Applied research
- Counseling Psychologists
- Clinical Psychologists
WHAT IS A NEURON?
A nerve cell: the basic building block of the nervous system
WHAT IS THE CORPUS CALLOSUM? WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIVIDE THIS?
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
split brains-isolates the brains (2) hemispheres by cutting the fibers (corpus callosum) connecting them
DEFINE SYNAPSE AND ITS FUNCTION.
meeting point at the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell bdy of the receiving neuron. Gap is called Synaptic gap.
WHO IS SIR CHARLES SHERRINGTON AND WHAT DID HE DO?
- Sir Charles Sherrington
- neural impulses talking long time to travel
- discovered the synapse gap (brief interruption)
Synapse-junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite
WHAT BRAIN STRUCTURE REFERS TO THE SWITCHBOARD?
- located on top of the brainstem
- directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
WHAT DOES THE SYMPTHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CONTROL AND PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
- Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) -arousing
- Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)- calming
Experimental factor-manipulated effect is being studied
WHAT IS THE RANGE?
Differenc between high and low number
WHAT IS THE MEDIAN?
WHAT IS THE MEAN?
WHAT IS THE MODE?
DEFINE THE DEPENDANT VARIABLE.
HOW DOES ACTION POTENTIAL WORK?
- Neuron fires an impulse
- *brief electrical charge that travels down
- How it works:1) Neuron fires brief electrical charge, depolarization causes action potential
2)gates in axon open and sodium atoms rush in. A pump in the cell membrane (Sodium and Potassium) transports sodium ions back out of the cell.
3) Action potential continues down axon 1ST section is recharged.
WHY IS REUPTAKE INPORTANT?
Absorbs neurotransmitter's after they have been released into the synapse
certain medications slows reuptake
IN THE CERBRAL CORTEX, THERE ARE 4 LOBES WHAT ARE THEY, WHERE ARE THEY LOCTED AND WHAT ARE THERE FUNCTIONS?
Cerebral cortex includes:
Frontal lobe- decision-making, problem solving and planning (Front)
Temporal lobe- memory, emotion, hearing and language (side above ears, lateral)
Parietal lobe- reception and sensory (Superior, top)
Occipital lobe- Vision (Posterior, rear)
FUNCTIONS OF GLIAL CELLS?
MORE OR LESS COMPARED TO MOTOR NEURONS?
Glial cells- cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons
Insulates myein sheaths and guide neural connections
more compared to motor neurons
Oberveable behavior in children
Created Schools of thoughts:
- *Gestalt Psychology
- 1st Psychology lab
"Morphine within" opiatelike neurtransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
Independent Variable exposed to the treatment