Psychology 101

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Joymiller27
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141068
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Psychology 101
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2012-03-11 21:43:44
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PSYCHOLOGY Intro Psychology Neuroscience behavior sensation Perception
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Modules 1 thru 6 plus Module 17 (Intro to Psychology, Neuroscience and behavior, sensation and Perception)
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  1. WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES?
    • *learned fears and expections
    • *emotional responses
    • *cognitive processing and pereptual interpreatations

    (1) level of analysis
  2. NAME THE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS.
    • 1)Biological Influences
    • 2)Psychological Influences
    • 3) Social-Cultural Influences
  3. WHO IS ALDRED KINSEY?
    Study sexualities (1940)
  4. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
    Science of behavior and mental process
  5. WHAT ARE THE SCHOOLS OF THOUGHTS?
    • STRUCTURALISM
    • FUNCTIONALISM
    • GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
    • BEHAVIORISM
    • HUMANISIC PSYCHOLOGY
    • PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY
  6. WHAT IS AN EEG, PET SCAN, fMRI, AND MRI?
    • EEG (electroencephalogrm)-electrcal activity from the brain
    • PET(Positron emission tomography)-brain activity by glucose
    • MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging)-soft tissues brain anatomy
    • fMRI(functional MRI)-bloodflow brain function
  7. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ANALYSIS AND WHAT DOES IT FORM?
    • Biopsychosocial approach-integrated approach
    • Levels of analysis- complementary views for analyzing any given phenomenon

    • Levels of analysis:
    • Biological approach
    • Psychological influences
    • Social-cultural influences
  8. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE?
    Study of the brain activity linked with mental function of the brain
  9. HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE?
    • 1) Electrical impluses travel down a neuron's axon until reaching a tiny junction known as a synapse.
    • 2)Action potential axon terminal stimulates release of neurotransmitter molecules. Molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. Electrically charged atoms to enter neuron and excite or inhibit new action potential.
    • 3) Reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters-reuptake
  10. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
    SELF-ACTUALIZATION-NATURAL TENDENCIES
  11. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
    Perception-organization info.
  12. BASIC RESEARCH
    Increased scientific knowledge
  13. APPLIED RESEARCH
    Solve practical problems
  14. BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES
    • *Natural selection of traits
    • *Genetic predispositions
    • *Brain Mechanisms
    • *Hormonal Influences

    (1) level of analysis
  15. SOCIAL-CULTURAL INFLUENCES
    • *Prescene of others
    • *Cultural societal family expectations
    • *Peer other group influences
    • *compelling models

    (1) level of analysis
  16. SIGMUND FREUD
    Influential theory/Psychoantlytic Pyschology

    emotional responses to childhood experiences and unconscious thought process affect behavior
  17. CARL ROGERS AND ABRAHAM MASLOW
    Humanistic Psychology
  18. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COUNSELING, CLINICAL AND PSYCHIATRISTS?
    • Counseling- assist people with problems
    • Clinical studies, assesses and treats
    • Psychiatry-RX. meds
  19. CASE STUDY
    an observtion technique in whch one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
  20. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    • 1) Theories
    • 2)Hypotheses
    • 3)Research and observations
  21. WHAT ARE SENSORY NEURONS?
    Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  22. COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
    • 1) Curious
    • 2) Scrutinize ideas
    • 3) Open-minded humility
  23. WHAT IS APHASIA?
    Impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area(impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
  24. DESCRIBE IN A SIMPLE WAY THE BRAIN AREAS INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE.
    • 1)Visual cortex: recieves written words as visual stimulation
    • 2) Angular gyrus: transforms visual representations into an auditory code
    • 3)Wernicke's area: interacts auditory code
    • 4)Broca's area: cotrols speech muscles via the motor cortex
    • 5) Motor cortex: word is pronounced
  25. DEFINE BROCA'S AREA AND LOCATION
    Located left frontal lobe

    controls language expression-an area usually in he left frontal lobe, directs muscle movement involved in speech

    Damage to this area: struggle to speak words
  26. DEFINE WERNICKE'S AREA AND LOCATION.
    located in the left temporal lobe

    controls language reception

    Damage to this area: people could speak only meaningless words
  27. LOCATION AND DEFINE ANGULAR GYRUS.
    Visual area

    controls reading aloud

    receives visual info from visual area and recodes it into an auditory form which Werncke's area uses to derive its meaning.

    Damage to this area: leaves a perso able to speak and understand but unable to read.
  28. PHILLIP VOGEL AND JOSEPH BOGEN
    Severing corpus callosum

    divided brains of cats and monkeys

    resulted in decreased or eliminated seizure activity and developed split brains
  29. DEFINE ASSOCITION AREAS. WHAT DO THEY DO?
    areas of the cerbral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking

    linked to sensory imputs with stored memories

    CANNOT be neatly mapped

    3/4 of te cerebral cortex that is uncommitted to sensory or muscular activity
  30. DESCRIBE A MOTOR NEURON
    • Dendrites: receives messages from other cells
    • Myelin Sheath: covers the axon
    • Terminal Branches of axon: forms junctions with other cells
    • Neural Impulse: Action potential
    • Axon: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands
    • Cell body: life support
  31. JOHN B. WASTON AND B.F. SKINNER
    • Behaviorists
    • redefined psychology
  32. WHAT ARE NEUROTRANSMITTERS?
    Neurotransmitters-chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.

    They travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  33. DEFINE THE RETICULAR FORMATION?
    Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in arousal

    (Severed cats R.F. puts it into a coma)
  34. WHAT IS REWARD DEFICIENCY SYNDROME?
    • Natural brain systems pleasure
    • crave whatever provides missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings
  35. JAMES OLDS AND PETER MILNER
    Reward and pleasure area of the brain

    experiment-rats and electrodes in hypothalamus
  36. DEFINE WEBER'S LAW.
    Perceived as different we need 2 stimuli that must differ constant amount
  37. WHAT ARE THE BRAIN STRUCTURES AND THERE FUNCTIONS?
    • Amygdala: emotion
    • Hippocampus: memory
    • Corpus Callosum: axons fibers connecting hemispheres
    • Thalamus: relays messages between brain centers and cerbral cortex "Switch Board"
    • Hypothalamus: maintenance functions emotion and reward
    • Pituitary: master gland
    • Recticular formation: arousal
    • Medulla:heartbeat and breathing
    • Spinal cord: pathway to brain simple reflexes
    • Cerebellum: movement, balance and memories
    • Cerebral cortex: control info-processing center
  38. STANDARD DEVIATION
    Computed measure how scores vary around the average
  39. WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE FOREBRAIN?
    • Limbic system: emotions and memory
    • Amygdala-Agression/fear/rage
    • Hippocampus-memory
    • Thalamus:"Switchboard"-sends messages to sites
    • Hypothalamus: maintanence functions governs endocrine system
    • Pituitary Gland:"Master Gland"
    • Cerebral cortex: thin layer that covers cerebral hemisphere
    • Frontal-front
    • Temporal-side(ears)
    • Parietal-top
    • Occipital-rear
  40. WHA IS THE IMPORTANCE OF A CASE STUDY?
    examines one individual in depth directions for further study- what can happen
  41. WHAT DID EDWARD TITCHENER STUDY?
    1892-Structuralism

    structural elements of the mind

    (introspection)
  42. WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE OLDER BRAIN STRUCTURE?
    • "OLDER PART"
    • Brainstem: central core
    • Medulla: base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing
    • Pons-coordinate movement
    • Reticular formation-nerve network, arousal
    • cerebellum-"little brain"-rear of the brainstem, sensory, movement and balance
  43. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VARIABLES?
    • experimental group-exposed to the treatment
    • Control group- not exposed
    • Independent variable- manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
    • dependent variable-variable change
  44. WILLIAM JAMES
    Functionalist-sense functions

    • Psychology first textbook
    • tutored 1st female 1890
    • "man card taken away b/c of tutoring a female"

    Textbook: "The Principes of Psychology"
  45. MARY CALKINS
    1890

    • studied under William James
    • 1st A.P.A female president
    • Harvard University
  46. MARGARET FLOY WASHBURN
    • 1ST Women to recevie PHD
    • 2ND president introduced in A.P.A that was female

    "The Animal Mind"-Textbook
  47. IVAN PAVLOV
    Behaviorism

    Experiment with white lab coats, dogs and bells

    • Classical Conditioning
    • Observable Behavior
  48. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
    Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without controlling the situations

    • Examples:
    • Parent-child interactions
    • self-seating patterns in the lunchroom
  49. WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGY'S MAIN SUBFIELDS?
    • Basic research
    • Applied research
    • Counseling Psychologists
    • Clinical Psychologists
    • Pychiatrists
  50. WHAT IS A NEURON?
    A nerve cell: the basic building block of the nervous system
  51. WHAT IS THE CORPUS CALLOSUM? WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIVIDE THIS?
    The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

    split brains-isolates the brains (2) hemispheres by cutting the fibers (corpus callosum) connecting them

    relieves seizures
  52. HINDSIGHT BIAS
    "I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon

    foreseenable events
  53. DEFINE SYNAPSE AND ITS FUNCTION.
    meeting point at the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell bdy of the receiving neuron. Gap is called Synaptic gap.
  54. WHO IS SIR CHARLES SHERRINGTON AND WHAT DID HE DO?
    (1857-1952)

    • Sir Charles Sherrington
    • neural impulses talking long time to travel
    • discovered the synapse gap (brief interruption)

    Synapse-junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite
  55. WHAT BRAIN STRUCTURE REFERS TO THE SWITCHBOARD?
    Thalamus-"Switchboard"

    • located on top of the brainstem
    • directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
  56. WHAT DOES THE SYMPTHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CONTROL AND PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) -arousing
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)- calming
  57. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
    Experimental factor-manipulated effect is being studied
  58. WHAT IS THE RANGE?
    Differenc between high and low number
  59. WHAT IS THE MEDIAN?
    Middle number
  60. WHAT IS THE MEAN?
    Average
  61. WHAT IS THE MODE?
    Frequent number
  62. DEFINE THE DEPENDANT VARIABLE.
    Outcome factor-change
  63. HOW DOES ACTION POTENTIAL WORK?
    • Neuron fires an impulse
    • *brief electrical charge that travels down
    • axons

    • How it works:
    • 1) Neuron fires brief electrical charge, depolarization causes action potential

    2)gates in axon open and sodium atoms rush in. A pump in the cell membrane (Sodium and Potassium) transports sodium ions back out of the cell.

    3) Action potential continues down axon 1ST section is recharged.
  64. WHY IS REUPTAKE INPORTANT?
    Absorbs neurotransmitter's after they have been released into the synapse

    certain medications slows reuptake
  65. IN THE CERBRAL CORTEX, THERE ARE 4 LOBES WHAT ARE THEY, WHERE ARE THEY LOCTED AND WHAT ARE THERE FUNCTIONS?
    Cerebral cortex includes:

    Frontal lobe- decision-making, problem solving and planning (Front)

    Temporal lobe- memory, emotion, hearing and language (side above ears, lateral)

    Parietal lobe- reception and sensory (Superior, top)

    Occipital lobe- Vision (Posterior, rear)
  66. FUNCTIONS OF GLIAL CELLS?
    MORE OR LESS COMPARED TO MOTOR NEURONS?
    Glial cells- cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons

    Insulates myein sheaths and guide neural connections

    more compared to motor neurons
  67. JEAN PIAGET
    Oberveable behavior in children
  68. WILHELM WUNDT
    Created Schools of thoughts:

    • *Structuralism
    • *Functionalism
    • *Gestalt Psychology
    • *Behaviorism
    • *Psychoanalysis
    • 1st Psychology lab
  69. ENDORPHINS
    "Morphine within" opiatelike neurtransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
  70. CHARLES DARWIN
    Natural Selection
  71. EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
    Independent Variable exposed to the treatment

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