APES pollution/weather

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soccerboi
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141070
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APES pollution/weather
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2012-03-12 01:04:42
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APES weather
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  1. How many years does it take for groundwater to cleanse itself of degradable wastes?
    Hundreds to Thousands
  2. Are nondegradable wastes in groundwater permanently?
    Yes
  3. Slowly degradable wastes (such as DDT) are in groundwater for
    decades
  4. According to the EPA, one or more organic chemicals contaminate about _% of municipal water supplies
    45%
  5. Arsenic naturally occurs at high levels where?
    How is arsenic naturally released?
    • In soil and rocks
    • Drilling into aquifers
  6. How many people are drinking water with Arsenic levels 5-100 times the ppb standard?
    Where?
    • 112 million people
    • Bangladesh, China, India, West Bengal
  7. Name some solutions for groundwater pollution
    • Monitoring wells
    • Leak detectors
    • Microorganisms to clean
    • Nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to clean
  8. If oceans are not overloaded, can they disperse and break down large quantities of degradable pollution?
    Yes
  9. What % of the worlds population lives on or near the coast?
    How many estuaries are threatened?
    • 40%,
    • 4 of 5 estuaries
  10. Harmful algal blooms are caused by what
    Runoff from sewage and agriculture
  11. How long does the large zone of oxygen-depleted water in the Northern Gulf of Mexico last and what does it cause?
    Why does it form?
    • Half a year as a result of harmful algal bloom
    • Hypoxia
    • Harmful algal bloom
  12. Chesapeake bay

    Population increase?
    What types of sources dump into bay?
    _% phosphates from point sources and _% nitrates from nonpoint sources
    • 3.7 to 17 million
    • point/nonpoint
    • 60%,60%
  13. Great Lakes

    What% of US freshwater?
    How much fish is unsafe for human consumption?
    Sea Lamprey/Zebra muscles (invasive species)
    • 95%
    • 1 in 4
    • kill fish
  14. Oil Pollution

    How long does it take for marine life to recover from large amounts of crude oil?
    From refined oil?
    • 3 years
    • 10 to 20 years
  15. Exxon Valdez (1989)

    Cost?
    How many fisheries affected in Alaska
    What happened to the birds?
    • 8 billion (3 billion in cleanup, 5 billion in fines)
    • 34,000
    • Birds lost buoyancy/insulation, died
  16. BP in Gulf of Mexico (2010)

    Dolphin/whale death rate was _x the normal rate
    _sq mile kill zone around well
    Why was BP blamed?
    • 2x
    • 80
    • Due to cost cutting, lack of safety system
  17. Ways to reduce oil pollution
    • National Energy Policy to decrease reliance on fossil fuels
    • Prohibit Drilling
    • Double Hulls on oil tankers
  18. Ways to clean up oil pollution?
    • Skimmers
    • Barries
    • Dispersants
    • Microbes
    • Clumping or gelling agents
  19. Bottled Water

    How many metric tons of plastic bottles are thrown away each year?
    Oil used to produce plastic bottles in the US each year would fuel ___cars
    • 1.4 million
    • 100,000
  20. Sphere Boundaries

    Troposphere
    Stratosphere
    Mesosphere
    • 10 km
    • 50 km
    • 80 km
  21. Other boundaries

    Where is the ozone layer?
    Mesopause?
    Start of Thermosphere
    • Stratosphere
    • 85 km
    • 90 km
  22. Composition of Air (Decreasing Order)
    _%N2
    _%O2
    _% Argon
    _%Co2
    • 78.8%
    • 20.8%
    • 1%
    • 0.036%
  23. Solid particles in atmosphere
    Soil, ash, microscopic organisms, salt
  24. __% of gases are found within _km of the earths surface
    • 99%
    • 32 km
  25. Job of the ozone (03) layer

    What does it absorb?
    Protects us by absorbing harmful UV radiation
  26. Things that damage ozone
    Chlorofluorocarbons from _ and _
    NO from _
    • Refrigerators and air conditions
    • Exhaust
  27. Wavelength

    Low Energy=_ waves
    Higher energy=_ waves
    • less
    • more
  28. Solar energy

    Travels through space as _
    Examples of electromagnetic radiation (waves)
    • radiation (waves)
    • x-rays, radio waves, visible light, uv radiation, gamma rays
  29. Atmosphere

    N2 and 02 absorb short _
    The wavelengths lose _ and become charged
    • wavelengths (xrays, gamma, uv rays)
    • e-
  30. Stratosphere

    UV rays act upon O2 molecules to form _
    Solar energy is absorbed by _,_ in the troposphere
    • O3
    • CO2, H2O vapor
  31. Suns Rays
    _% is absorbed by earth's surface
    _% is reflected by clouds, dust, air, earth's surface
    _%is absorbed by clouds, dust, gases
    • 50%
    • 30%
    • 20%
  32. Rocks, soil, water, etc and heated by visible light and _rays
    Heated rays then produce their own heated rays which are absorbed by _vapor and _ in the atmosphere
    infrared
  33. Greenhouse effect

    Process by which the atmosphere traps _ rays over Earth's surface
    Solar amount trapped=amount that escapes but _ activity alters this
    Absorption of long wavelength infrared ways from Earth's surface by gas molecules _ heat and prevents from going into space
    • infrared
    • human
    • traps
  34. Define Weather
    Day to day conditions of Earth's atmosphere in a particular time and place
  35. Define Climate
    What is climate caused by?
    • Average year after year condition of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
    • Trapping of heat in the atmosphere, latitude, transport of hear, precipitation
  36. Define: Greenhouse effect
    Give examples of greenhouse gases
    • A natural situation in which heat is absorbed by layers of greenhouse gases
    • CO2, CH4, H2O (g)
  37. Global Warming-anthropogenic causes?
    Man has released gases into the atmosphere to raise temperature faster than normal
  38. Variations in Temperature Factors

    1) Latitude- temp near the equator is higher because of more
    2)Elevation- _air at higher altitudes, Less _/_ to trap heat
    3)Temp of H2O changes less than temp of land
    • Direct Rays
    • Thinner, CO2/H2O vapor
  39. Define-Conduction
    Molecules move faster when heated
  40. Define-Convection
    Movement of gases or liquids when heated
  41. Winds

    Air moves from _ pressure towards _ pressure belts
    High to low
  42. Air generally flows from _ towards the equator
    poles
  43. Define: Coriolis Effect
    Rotation of the earth causes surface winds in the Northern Hemisphere to be deflected to the right and the Southern Hemisphere to the left
  44. Define-Duldrums
    Narrow zone of low air pressure at the equator characterized by weak and undependable winds
  45. Study the Coriolis Effect Chart
    .
  46. Define: Jet Streams
    Bands of high speed winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
  47. Define-Local Winds
    Breezes that extend over distances of 100 km
  48. Mountains and Valleys

    During the Day Valley breeze goes up the _
    During the night the mountain cools more _ than the valley so the cool breeze moves _
    • slope
    • quickly, down
  49. Atmospheric H2O

    Mostly comes from _
    Comes from trees through the process of _
    A little from volcanoes/burning of _
    • Evaporation
    • Transpiration
    • Fossil Fuels
  50. Define-Humidity
    Give the humidity formula
    • Amount of H2O vapor in atmosphere
    • gH2O/kg of air
  51. Define-Dew Point
    Temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation
  52. Clouds

    Need a solid surface=condensation nuclei (_,_,_,_)
    Define: Fog
    Define: Convective coooling
    • Ice, dust, salt, etc
    • Cloud that forms on or near earth's surface
    • The lowering of temp of a mass of air due to its rising and expanding
  53. Clouds formed by convective cooling

    1000m 10C Dewpoint=
    500m 15C Dewpoint=
    0m 20C Dewpoint=
    10, 11, 12C
  54. Advective Cooling

    Produced when _ carry warm, moist air across a _ ocean or region of lands
    Cold area absorbs _ from warm air causing the _ to cool
    If below dewpoint= _ or _
    • winds, cold
    • heat, air
    • fog or clouds
  55. Define: acliabatic temperature changes
    temperature resulting from the cooling of rising air and the warming of sinking air
  56. How is a front produced
    2 air masses with different densities collide
  57. Cold front overtakes _ air
    _ storms
    • warm
    • violent
  58. Warm front overtakes _ air
    extended and high _ clouds
    • cooler
    • cirrus
  59. Define-Cyclone
    Wind Speed?
    • Winds on one side of the front blow in the opposite direction of the winds on the other front
    • 32 to 64 km/hr
  60. Define: Tornado
    Thunderstorm meets high altitude _ winds. Causes rising air to _
    • Smallest, most violent, short lived severe storms
    • horizontal, rotate
  61. Hurricanes

    Wind Speed
    Winds spiral rapidly towards an intensely _ pressure storm center
    • Winds over 120 km/hr
    • low
  62. Define: Albedo

    Look at the albedo chart
    Measures of reflected sunlight
  63. Topographic features an create local and _ climate regions that
    _ from the general climate region
    regional, differ
  64. Microclimates

    Where?
    What creates them?
    • Cities
    • Bricks, concrete, asphalt blocks wind and absorbs heat
    • Motor vehicles
  65. Results of microclimates in cities
    Haze, smog, high temp, low wind speeds
  66. Define: ecotones
    Transition areas, large biodiversity
  67. What does an indicator species serve as?
    Give an example of an indicator species
    • Serves as early warning of damage or danger to community
    • Trout (shows water quality/needs clean H2O and DO
  68. Examples of indicator species vanishing (amphibians from water)
    Characteristics of amphibians
    Tadpole lives in _ and eats _
    Adult amphibians mostly live on _ and eat _
    • Toads, frogs, salamanders
    • Live part of life on land and part on water
    • Water, plants
    • Land, insects
  69. 1997-1998 El Nino
    It rained _ inches in Laguna Beach in _ hours
    8 inches, 60 hours
  70. What is used to observe El Nino?
    Buoys, satellites, ships
  71. What is upwelling
    Wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water
  72. During Normal Conditions

    _ trade winds move water and air across Pacific
    Warm water pools in Indonesia are _F Warmer
    Cooler water on the coast of __ because of upwelling
    Causes _ in Indonesia
    Upwelling in western Pacific increases _ and increases _
    • Eastern
    • 14
    • South America
    • Monsoons
    • nutrients, fish
  73. Characteristics of El Nino

    Occurs when and where?
    What happens to trade winds?
    Does rain fall in previously very dry areas?
    • Late in December, West Coast of South America
    • weaken or stop
    • yes
  74. El Nino Characteristics (Cont)

    _ pressure drops along West coast of South America and _ pressure develops in Western Pacific
    Warm water reduces upwelling along South American coast
    _ Fish kills
    _ in Peru
    _ in Indonesia/Australia
    • Air, high
    • Extensive
    • Floods
    • Drought
  75. Effects of El Nino

    Ecuador and Northern Peru: _ and very _ summers cause major flooding
    Northern Australia and Southeast Asia: _ conditions and subject to _ fires
    • warm, wet
    • drier, brush
  76. El Nino-what happens in

    North America-midwest, southwest, northwest, west coast, east coast
    Africa:
    El Nino Happens from _ to _
    • warmer winters, wetter and cooler than normal, dry and foggy, increased waves=erosion, hurricanes
    • Drier than normal
    • December-February
  77. 1997-1998 El Nino

    Amount of energy put into atmosphere by 1997-1998 El Nino was more than the amount of energy consumed by the US for _ year of burning _ _
    The sea level height in the eastern equatorial pacific was more than _ cm higher than normal, an area twice the size of the US
    In California, the sea lion mortality rate was _-_%
    • one, fossil fuels
    • 2cm
    • 25-70%

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