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How many years does it take for groundwater to cleanse itself of degradable wastes?
Hundreds to Thousands
Are nondegradable wastes in groundwater permanently?
Slowly degradable wastes (such as DDT) are in groundwater for
According to the EPA, one or more organic chemicals contaminate about _% of municipal water supplies
Arsenic naturally occurs at high levels where?
How is arsenic naturally released?
- In soil and rocks
- Drilling into aquifers
How many people are drinking water with Arsenic levels 5-100 times the ppb standard?
- 112 million people
- Bangladesh, China, India, West Bengal
Name some solutions for groundwater pollution
- Monitoring wells
- Leak detectors
- Microorganisms to clean
- Nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to clean
If oceans are not overloaded, can they disperse and break down large quantities of degradable pollution?
What % of the worlds population lives on or near the coast?
How many estuaries are threatened?
Harmful algal blooms are caused by what
Runoff from sewage and agriculture
How long does the large zone of oxygen-depleted water in the Northern Gulf of Mexico last and what does it cause?
Why does it form?
- Half a year as a result of harmful algal bloom
- Harmful algal bloom
What types of sources dump into bay?
_% phosphates from point sources and _% nitrates from nonpoint sources
- 3.7 to 17 million
What% of US freshwater?
How much fish is unsafe for human consumption?
Sea Lamprey/Zebra muscles (invasive species)
How long does it take for marine life to recover from large amounts of crude oil?
From refined oil?
Exxon Valdez (1989)
How many fisheries affected in Alaska
What happened to the birds?
- 8 billion (3 billion in cleanup, 5 billion in fines)
- Birds lost buoyancy/insulation, died
BP in Gulf of Mexico (2010)
Dolphin/whale death rate was _x the normal rate
_sq mile kill zone around well
Why was BP blamed?
- Due to cost cutting, lack of safety system
Ways to reduce oil pollution
- National Energy Policy to decrease reliance on fossil fuels
- Prohibit Drilling
- Double Hulls on oil tankers
Ways to clean up oil pollution?
- Clumping or gelling agents
How many metric tons of plastic bottles are thrown away each year?
Oil used to produce plastic bottles in the US each year would fuel ___cars
Where is the ozone layer?
Start of Thermosphere
Composition of Air (Decreasing Order)
Solid particles in atmosphere
Soil, ash, microscopic organisms, salt
__% of gases are found within _km of the earths surface
Job of the ozone (03) layer
What does it absorb?
Protects us by absorbing harmful UV radiation
Things that damage ozone
Chlorofluorocarbons from _ and _
NO from _
- Refrigerators and air conditions
Low Energy=_ waves
Higher energy=_ waves
Travels through space as _
Examples of electromagnetic radiation (waves)
- radiation (waves)
- x-rays, radio waves, visible light, uv radiation, gamma rays
N2 and 02 absorb short _
The wavelengths lose _ and become charged
- wavelengths (xrays, gamma, uv rays)
UV rays act upon O2 molecules to form _
Solar energy is absorbed by _,_ in the troposphere
_% is absorbed by earth's surface
_% is reflected by clouds, dust, air, earth's surface
_%is absorbed by clouds, dust, gases
Rocks, soil, water, etc and heated by visible light and _rays
Heated rays then produce their own heated rays which are absorbed by _vapor and _ in the atmosphere
Process by which the atmosphere traps _ rays over Earth's surface
Solar amount trapped=amount that escapes but _ activity alters this
Absorption of long wavelength infrared ways from Earth's surface by gas molecules _ heat and prevents from going into space
Day to day conditions of Earth's atmosphere in a particular time and place
What is climate caused by?
- Average year after year condition of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
- Trapping of heat in the atmosphere, latitude, transport of hear, precipitation
Define: Greenhouse effect
Give examples of greenhouse gases
- A natural situation in which heat is absorbed by layers of greenhouse gases
- CO2, CH4, H2O (g)
Global Warming-anthropogenic causes?
Man has released gases into the atmosphere to raise temperature faster than normal
Variations in Temperature Factors
1) Latitude- temp near the equator is higher because of more
2)Elevation- _air at higher altitudes, Less _/_ to trap heat
3)Temp of H2O changes less than temp of land
- Direct Rays
- Thinner, CO2/H2O vapor
Molecules move faster when heated
Movement of gases or liquids when heated
Air moves from _ pressure towards _ pressure belts
High to low
Air generally flows from _ towards the equator
Define: Coriolis Effect
Rotation of the earth causes surface winds in the Northern Hemisphere to be deflected to the right and the Southern Hemisphere to the left
Narrow zone of low air pressure at the equator characterized by weak and undependable winds
Study the Coriolis Effect Chart
Define: Jet Streams
Bands of high speed winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
Breezes that extend over distances of 100 km
Mountains and Valleys
During the Day Valley breeze goes up the _
During the night the mountain cools more _ than the valley so the cool breeze moves _
Mostly comes from _
Comes from trees through the process of _
A little from volcanoes/burning of _
- Fossil Fuels
Give the humidity formula
- Amount of H2O vapor in atmosphere
- gH2O/kg of air
Temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation
Need a solid surface=condensation nuclei (_,_,_,_)
Define: Convective coooling
- Ice, dust, salt, etc
- Cloud that forms on or near earth's surface
- The lowering of temp of a mass of air due to its rising and expanding
Clouds formed by convective cooling
1000m 10C Dewpoint=
500m 15C Dewpoint=
0m 20C Dewpoint=
10, 11, 12C
Produced when _ carry warm, moist air across a _ ocean or region of lands
Cold area absorbs _ from warm air causing the _ to cool
If below dewpoint= _ or _
- winds, cold
- heat, air
- fog or clouds
Define: acliabatic temperature changes
temperature resulting from the cooling of rising air and the warming of sinking air
How is a front produced
2 air masses with different densities collide
Cold front overtakes _ air
Warm front overtakes _ air
extended and high _ clouds
- Winds on one side of the front blow in the opposite direction of the winds on the other front
- 32 to 64 km/hr
Thunderstorm meets high altitude _ winds. Causes rising air to _
- Smallest, most violent, short lived severe storms
- horizontal, rotate
Winds spiral rapidly towards an intensely _ pressure storm center
Look at the albedo chart
Measures of reflected sunlight
Topographic features an create local and _ climate regions that
_ from the general climate region
What creates them?
- Bricks, concrete, asphalt blocks wind and absorbs heat
- Motor vehicles
Results of microclimates in cities
Haze, smog, high temp, low wind speeds
Transition areas, large biodiversity
What does an indicator species serve as?
Give an example of an indicator species
- Serves as early warning of damage or danger to community
- Trout (shows water quality/needs clean H2O and DO
Examples of indicator species vanishing (amphibians from water)
Characteristics of amphibians
Tadpole lives in _ and eats _
Adult amphibians mostly live on _ and eat _
- Toads, frogs, salamanders
- Live part of life on land and part on water
- Water, plants
- Land, insects
1997-1998 El Nino
It rained _ inches in Laguna Beach in _ hours
8 inches, 60 hours
What is used to observe El Nino?
Buoys, satellites, ships
What is upwelling
Wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water
During Normal Conditions
_ trade winds move water and air across Pacific
Warm water pools in Indonesia are _F Warmer
Cooler water on the coast of __ because of upwelling
Causes _ in Indonesia
Upwelling in western Pacific increases _ and increases _
- South America
- nutrients, fish
Characteristics of El Nino
Occurs when and where?
What happens to trade winds?
Does rain fall in previously very dry areas?
- Late in December, West Coast of South America
- weaken or stop
El Nino Characteristics (Cont)
_ pressure drops along West coast of South America and _ pressure develops in Western Pacific
Warm water reduces upwelling along South American coast
_ Fish kills
_ in Peru
_ in Indonesia/Australia
- Air, high
Effects of El Nino
Ecuador and Northern Peru: _ and very _ summers cause major flooding
Northern Australia and Southeast Asia: _ conditions and subject to _ fires
El Nino-what happens in
North America-midwest, southwest, northwest, west coast, east coast
El Nino Happens from _ to _
- warmer winters, wetter and cooler than normal, dry and foggy, increased waves=erosion, hurricanes
- Drier than normal
1997-1998 El Nino
Amount of energy put into atmosphere by 1997-1998 El Nino was more than the amount of energy consumed by the US for _ year of burning _ _
The sea level height in the eastern equatorial pacific was more than _ cm higher than normal, an area twice the size of the US
In California, the sea lion mortality rate was _-_%
- one, fossil fuels