Psychology 101 #2

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Joymiller27
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Psychology 101 #2
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2012-03-30 22:05:55
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Psychology Other important senses learning memory
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Modules 18 thru 27(Other important senses, learning, and memory)
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  1. DEFINITION OF AUDITION.
    Audition is the act of hearing.
  2. DEFINITION OF TIMBER.
    Unqineness of ones voice.
  3. DESCRIBE THE ANATOMY OF THE EAR.
    • Visible outer ear
    • Auditory canal
    • Eardrum
    • Middle ear (hammer,anvil,stirrup)
    • Inner ear (Cochlea)
    • Basilar membrane
    • Auditory nerve
    • Auditory cortex
  4. HOW DO WE TRANSFORM SOUND WAVES INTO NERVE IMPULSES THAT OUR BRAIN INTERPRETS?
    Outer ear recieves sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum. The bones of the middle ear (hammer,anvil, stirrup) amplifies and relay the vibrations through the cochlea's membrane (the oval window). The cochlea, fluid filled, snail-shaped tube located in the inner ear. Pressure changes in the ear results in rippling of the basilar membrane, bending hair cells. This triggers impulses to the auditory nerve then to the thalamus and on to the auditory cortex.
  5. DESCRIBE PLACE THEORY
    • Hermann von Helmholtz's place theory presumes that we hear different pitched because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane.
    • Recongnizes the specific place.
    • Explains high-pitched sounds.
  6. DESCRIBE FREQUENCY THEORY.
    The brain reads pitch by monitoring the frequency of the neural impluses to the auditory nerve.

    Explains low-pitched sounds
  7. WHAT IS CONDUCTION HEARING LOSS?
    Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.

    • Examples of damage that causes this:
    • Punctured eardrum
    • Lost of ability in the middle ear to vibrate
  8. WHAT IS SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS?
    Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.

    • Causes:
    • disease
    • biological changes (heredity, aging, prolonged exposure)
  9. WHAT IS A COCHLEAR IMPLANT?
    Device for converting sounds into electrial signals and stimulating auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.

    Electronic device that translates sounds into signals that is wired into the cochlea's nerves.
  10. WHAT IS THE DEBATE ABOUT COCHLEAR IMPLANTS?
    • SIDE A:Hearing parents of deaf children. They want them to experience a world of sound and talk.
    • SIDE B: Deaf culture is against implants. They argue deafness is not a disability.
  11. DEFINITION OF KINESTHESIS.
    Awareness of the position and movement of individual body parts.
  12. DEFINE AND DESCRIBE THE VESTIBULAR SENSE.
    The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.

    The sense of balance is located in the inner ear. Includes semicircular canals(3D pretzel) and vestibular sacs (connect canals with the cochlea). Cochlea contains fluid that moves when your head rotates or tilts. The movement of the fluid stimulates hair receptors which then in turns sends messages to the cerebellum, thus enabling the Vestibular sense.
  13. DESCRIBE AND DEFINE GATE-CONTROL THEORY.
    The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.

    Stimulation is one way to treat chronic pain.

    Theory by Ronald Melzack and biologist Patrick Wall (1965,1983)
  14. WHAT IS THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH TO PAIN?
    • BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES:
    • activity in spinal cord's large and small fibers
    • genetic differences in endorphin production
    • interpretation of CNS activity

    • PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES:
    • attention to pain
    • learning based on experience
    • expectations

    • SOCIAL-CULTURAL INFLUENCES:
    • presence of others
    • empathy for others' pain
    • cultural expecations

    Leads to personal experience of pain!
  15. DEFINE AND DESCRIBE SENSORY INTERACTION.
    The principle that one sense may influence another.

    • Example:
    • Smell of food influences taste.
  16. WHAT IS SYNAESTHESIA?
    Synaesthesia is a phenomenon that occurs in a few select individuals where one sensation produces another. The brain blends their inputs, the senses become joined.

    • Example:
    • sound produces color
    • odor produces taste
  17. WHAT IS OLFACTION?
    Olfaction is the sense of smell.
  18. WHAT IS ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING?
    Associative learning is learning that links certain events together. In classical conditioning the events may be two stimuli. In operant conditioning would be a response and its consequence.

    Researched the foundation for "learning" Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  19. WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?
    Classical conditioning was explored by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) This type of learning can be described as linking 2 or more stimuli with anticipate events.

    Famous observation experiment included:

    • Observation before conditioning:
    • (Food) US in dog's mouth caused (salivation) UR. Results equals an unconditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response. When a neutral stimulus (unassociated stimulus) in this case a tone, it produces no salivation.

    • Observation during conditiontiong:
    • Introduction of a neutral stimulus (tone) plus US (food) equals UR (salivation). Results: the unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented just after the neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus continues to produce an unconditioned response.
  20. DESCRIBE THE EXPERIMENT PERTAINING TO CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.
    • Pavlov's Observational experiment:
    • Observation before conditioning:
    • (Food) US in dog's mouth caused (salivation) UR. Results equals an unconditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response. When a neutral stimulus (unassociated stimulus) in this case a tone, it produces no salivation.

    • Observation during conditiontiong:
    • Introduction of a neutral stimulus (tone) plus US (food) equals UR (salivation). Results: the unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented just after the neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus continues to produce an unconditioned response.

    • Observation after conditioning:
    • CS(tone) equals CR (salivation).
    • Results: The neutral stimulus alone now produces a conditioned response (CR), thereby becoming a conditioned stimulus (CS).
  21. WHAT IS LEARNING?
    Learning is a permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
  22. WHAT IS BEHAVIORISM?
    • Behaviorism is the view in psychology that states; psychology should be an objective science based on observable behavior.
    • Behaviorism should not make reference to mental processes (Mentalistic).

    Few researchers today argue over the view that psychology studies behavior without reference to mental process. Most agree that learning occurs by adaptability.
  23. DEFINITION OF CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR).
    In classical conditioning, the conditioned response is the learned response to a neutral

    learned respnse to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus
  24. WHAT IS UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR)?
    Classical conditioning unlearned naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus

    example: salivation when food is in the mouth
  25. WHAT IS CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS)?
    Classical conditioning irrelevant stimulus after association with unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response
  26. WHAT IS UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US)?
    Classical conditioning stimulus that is unconditionally-naturally and automatically triggers a response
  27. WHAT IS ACQUISITION?
    In Classical conditioning, its the initial stage linking neural stimulus and unconditioned stimulus to neutral stimulus that triggers conditioned response

    In Operant conditioning its the strengthening of a reinforced response
  28. WHAT IS HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING?

    (OTHERWISE KNOWN AS 2ND-ORDER CONDITIONING)
    procedure in which the conditioned stimulus (irrelevant stimulus) in an experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a weaker secondary conditioned Stimulus

    Examples:

    Animals that has learned that a tone predicts food then they learn that a light predicts the tone and begins responding to only the light NOT the tone
  29. DEFINE EXTINCTION.
    Extinction is defined as the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an uncontrolled stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
  30. DEFINE RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR.
    Respondent behavior is behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
  31. WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING?
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

    Association of actions with consequences.
  32. WHAT IS LAW OF EFFECT?
    Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely behaviors that followed by infavorable consequences become less likely.
  33. WHAT IS AN OPERANT CHAMBER?
    In operant conditioning, its a chamber (Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

    One type of behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control.

    B.F SKINNER (1904-1990)
  34. DEFINE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.
    Postive reinforcement is behavior that increases with the prescene of positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, it strengthens the response.
  35. DEFINE NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT.
    Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, it strengthens the response.

    THIS IS NOT PUNISHMENT
  36. WHAT IS PARTIAL (INTERMITTENT) REINFORCEMENT?
    Partial reinforcement is reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
  37. DEFINE FIXED-RATIO SCHEDULE.
    Fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
  38. DEFINE VARIABLE-RATIO SCHEDULE.
    Operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
  39. DEFINE FIXED-INTERVAL SCHEDULE.
    Operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
  40. DEFINE VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULE.
    Operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
  41. PUNISHMENT
    event that decreases the behavior that follows
  42. LATENT LEARNING
    learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demostrate it
  43. DEFINE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION.
    a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

    "your-self"
  44. DEFINE EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION.
    Desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
  45. DEFINE OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING.
    Learning by observing others.
  46. DEFINE MODELING.
    The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
  47. WHAT ARE MIRROR NEURONS?
    Mirror neurons are frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of anothers action may enable imitation and empathy.
  48. DEFINE PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR.
    Prosocial behavior is defined as positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
  49. DEFINE AND DESCRIBE GROUPING.
    • Grouping is the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
    • Proximity-nearby figures
    • Similarity-similar groups
    • Continuity-smooth, continuous patterns
    • Connectedness-uniform and linked
    • Closure- fill in gaps
  50. DEFINE COLOR CONSTANCY.
    Color constancy is perceving familiar objcts as having a consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
  51. JOHN B. WASTON AND ROSALEE RAYNOR
    "Little Albert experiment"
  52. WHAT IS GESTALT ORGANIZATION?
    Gestalt organization is an organized whole. Our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  53. WHAT IS FIGURE-GROUND ORGANIZATION?
    organization of visual objects that stand out from their surroundings.
  54. DESCRIBE THE VISUAL CLIFF EXPERIMENT?
    lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
  55. WHAT ARE BINOCULAR CUES?
    depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes.
  56. DEFINE RETINAL DISPARITY?
    binocular cue for perceiving depth:by comparing images from the retinas in two eyes, the brain computes distance-greater the disparity between the images, the closer the object.
  57. WHAT ARE MONOCULAR CUES?
    • depth cues
    • linear perspective
    • interposition
  58. WHAT IS PHI-PHENOMENON?
    Phi-phenomenon is an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
  59. WHAT IS PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY?
    Perceptual constancy is defined as perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
  60. WHAT DOES RESEARCH ON SENSORY RESTRICTION AND RESTORED VISION REVEAL ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF EXPERIENCE?
    Blind peeps regained sight after surgery lack the experience to recognize shapes, forms and complete faces.
  61. HOW ADAPTABLE IS OUR ABILITY TO PERCEIVE?
    Perceptual adaptation which is the ability to adjust to an artifically displaced or even inverted visual field.

    ADAPTABILITY
  62. HOW DO OUR EXPECTATIONS, CONTEXTS AND EMOTIONS INFLUENCE OUR PERCEPTIONS?
    Perceptual set is a mental predisposition that functions as a lens through which we perceive the world. Our learned concepts let us organize and interpret stimuli in certain ways. Expectations that guide our perceptions.
  63. DEFINE MEMORY.
    Memory is the persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval of info.
  64. DEFINE ENCODING.
    Encoding is the processing of information into the memory system.

    Example: extracting meaning
  65. DEFINE STORAGE.
    retention of encoded info in over time
  66. DEFINE RETRIEVAL.
    Retrieval is the process of getting the information out of memory storage.
  67. WHAT IS SENSORY MEMORY?
    Sensory memory is theimmediate, brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
  68. WHAT IS SHORT-TERM MEMORY?
    Short-term memory is activated memory that holds few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
  69. WHAT IS LONG-TERM MEMORY?
    Long-term memory is the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

    Includes: knowledge-skills and experiences.
  70. WHAT IS WORKING MEMORY?
    Working memory is a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
  71. DEFINE GENERALIZATION.
    Generalization is the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
  72. HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS DESCRIBE THE HUMAN MEMORY SYSTEM?
    Memory is learning over time.

    • Atkinson-Shiffrin classic three-stage memory:
    • 1) sensory memories
    • 2) processing of short term memories
    • 3) encoding of long term memories

    By-pass of the first two stages is called working-memory.
  73. DEFINE DISCRIMINATION.
    Discrimination in classical conditioning, is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
  74. WHAT IS AUTOMATIC PROCESSING?
    Automatic processing is the unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
  75. WHAT IS EFFORTFUL PROCESSING?
    Effortful processing is the encoding of information that requires attention and conscious effort.
  76. DEFINE REHEARSAL.
    Repetition of information.
  77. WHAT IS THE SPACING EFFECT?
    Spacing effect is defined as the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
  78. WHAT IS SERIAL POSITION EFFECT?
    Serial position effect is our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

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