Explain (in 3-4 paragraphs) how Paul differentiates between the meanings of the following terms: body and flesh; mind and heart; and soul and spirit. For each term, also state its corresponding Greek word (e.g., body/sōma and flesh/sarx). (Sect. 18-20)
1. Body (soma) and Flesh (sarx) 1.1 Body (soma)The term “body” (soma) has positive, neutral and negative usages. 1.1.1 The body is the indispensable agent or instrument of the human self or personality, 1 Cor. 15:35-49 1.1.2 There is continuity between our present body, suited for this world, and our future body, suited for the world to come, Phil. 3:21; 2 Cor. 5:1-4; 1 Cor. 15:37, 42-44 (cf. vv. 51-52); see 1 Cor. 6:12-20 where Paul argues against sexual immorality based, in part, on our bodies’ destiny (resurrection) and identity (members of Christ). 1.1.3 The body and its members must be recovered from the rule of sin and presented to God, Rom. 6:12, 13, 19. 1.1.4 “Body of sin” and “body of death,” Rom 6:6, 7:4 (cf. 6:23). Death to the old life; now we are members of the body of Christ. 1.1.5 Conclusion“The members of the body can be offered to sin or to God. The sin-dominated body must die; or the body, the members, must be recovered from the rule of sin and be presented to God.” C. K. Barrett, Paul: An Introduction to his Thought, p.69. 1.2 Flesh (sarx)The term “flesh” is a more negative term than “body.” It has a neutral usage, but its usage is primarily negative. 1.2.1 Flesh in a physical and biological sense— 1 Cor. 6:16; 15:39; 2 Cor. 4:11 (cf. Isaiah 31:3); 7:1; Rom 9:3. 1.2.2 Oriented to this present world (the fallen world system with its values), “according to the flesh,” 1 Cor.1:26-27; 2 Cor. 5:16; 1 Cor. 3:1,3; Phil. 3:3ff; Rom. 2:25, 28-29; 4:9-12; Gal. 3:3; 4:23; 6:13, 15.We have an interesting and clarifying case in 2 Cor. 10:2-4. Paul differentiates between: a) living in the flesh as simply bodily life in this present world and, therefore, ethically neutral, and b) living according to the flesh, which is submitting to standards and securities other than God. NOTE: the NIV translates Paul’s phrases here by “in the world” rather than as the Greek, “in the flesh.” The passage literally reads (from the King James Version): “…I think to be bold against some, which think of us as if we walked according to the flesh. For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: for the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God…” 1.2.3 The law, though good, is rendered ineffective because of the flesh, Rom. 7:17-8:13 1.2.4 The flesh is opposed to the Spirit and to love, Gal. 5:13-24 2. Mind (nous) and Heart (kardia) 2.1 Mind (nous) 2.1.1 Reasoning faculty, Rom, 14:5; 1 Cor. 14:14, 15, 19; Phil. 4:7 2.1.2 The unfit, depraved, or reprobate mind, Rom. 1:28; Eph. 4:17-19 2.1.3 The mind can be renewed, Rom. 12:2; Eph. 4:20-24; Col. 3:2, 10; cf. Phil. 4:8 2.1.4 Conclusion The mind, like the body, is at a crossroads: it can turn towards God or to sin. The mind, therefore, is not higher than any other aspect of the human person, as in Greek thought; the mind may be dominated by sin. 2.2 Heart (kardia) 2.2.1 The innermost part of the person: the seat of thinking, feeling, willing, and being 126.96.36.199 Core of our being“He who searches the heart,” Rom. 8:27; the law and circumcision must penetrate to the heart, Rom 2:15, 29; obedience and belief need to be “from the heart,” Rom. 6:17; 10:9-10 188.8.131.52 Emotive aspect, Rom. 9:2; 2 Cor. 2:4; Rom. 10:1; Phil. 4:7; Col. 3:15; Col. 2:2; 4:8; Phil. 1:7-8, where heart parallels “bowels” (NIV, “affections”) 184.108.40.206 Decision-making aspect, 1 Cor. 7:37; 2 Cor. 9:7 2.2.2 ConclusionThe term “heart” was needed as well as the term “mind.” J.D.G. Dunn writes, “It was important for Paul…that the human being was not just rational and not just a bundle of feelings, but both…. Paul thus in effect refused to reduce the wholeness of the person to rationality, but sought to maintain a balance between the rational, the emotional and the volitional.” The Theology of Paul the Apostle, p.75. 3. Soul (psyche) and Spirit (pneuma) 3.1 Soul (psyche)Psyche has a variety of senses as does its corresponding Hebrew word, nephesh. 3.1.1 Life, Rom. 11:3 (“They seek my life”), 16:4; Phil. 2:30; cf. 1 Cor. 15:45 citation of Gen. 2:7. 3.1.2 Person, representative of the human race.Paul seems to be following a common Hebrew use when he writes “every soul” for all representatives of the human race. Rom. 2:9; 13:1. 3.1.3 Aspect of our psycho-somatic unity (human person), 1 Thess. 5:23. 220.127.116.11 Similar to Jesus teaching his disciples to love God with all their heart, soul, mind and strength (Mk. 12:30), i.e., their whole being. Jesus was not teaching four separate parts of the person. 18.104.22.168 Compare 2 Cor. 7:5 with 2:13. In the first passage Paul says that because of his anxiety over his friends in Corinth, “his flesh (sarx) had no rest.” In 2 Cor. 2:13, speaking of the same experience, he says, “I had no rest for my spirit (pneuma)”—a practically synonymous usage of the terms. 3.2 Spirit (pneuma)This term is difficult to assess because it is hard to tell when Paul is speaking of the human spirit (which he does frequently) and when he is speaking of the Holy Spirit (which he does often). It is seldom that the latter can be ruled out, even when we think he is speaking of the former. 3.2.1 The spirit in a person corresponds with the Spirit of God as a self-cognitive element, 1 Cor. 2:11; Rom. 8:16. 3.2.2 In 1 Cor. 14:14 (cf. v 32) it is difficult to determine whether Paul is speaking of God or a human person. “My spirit” may be a part of his psychological make-up, or the spiritual gift entrusted to him, or the spiritual agency affecting it, or the Holy Spirit given to him (“the Spirit appointed to me”). 3.2.3 Aspect of the total person, 2 Cor. 7:1; 1 Cor. 7:34. In these texts, Paul is speaking in a popular way of the total person, of cleansing and devotion, respectively.