General Parasites

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  1. What is symbiosis?
    Mutualism, commensalism, parasitisim
  2. what is commensalism?
    one party draws a benifit but the neither are harmed
  3. are most symbiotic relationships parasitic?
  4. term for always parasitic?
    obligate parasite
  5. term meaning may or may not be parasitic?
    facultative parasite
  6. term for parasite oin wrong host?
    incidental parasite
  7. prepatent period means?`
    time the parasite enters until reproduction occurs
  8. patent infection mean?
    female producing eggs
  9. incubation time is when?
    time from infection to disease
  10. what are the 2 types of vectors?
    biological and mechanical
  11. a fomite is what?

    what type of xfer?
    inanimate - mech xfer
  12. scientific names require for naming?
    genus and species
  13. 7 classifications?
    kings play chess or fight green snakes

    king phy class order fam gen species
  14. the be sucessful the parasite must .....
    • gain entry into host
    • avoid destruction
    • avoid killing host
    • reproduce
    • kids make it to new host
  15. how parasites gain entry?
    ingest, skin, some sort of vector, transplacental, trans mammary
  16. describe transplacental migration
    larve in blood circulation become dormant and migrate into organs and muscles. animal prego. when prego ... reactivate, cross placenta, larve in neonate.

    xmammary the game but throught mam glands
  17. how do parasites cause disease?
    cell or tissue distruction, interfear with blood supply, mechanical obstruction, compete for nutrients, irritation, xmit disease, cause allergies, eat our blood, allow for secondary infection
  18. what are some types of parasites?
    external, internal
  19. what are the parasite families? describe them?
    • protozoa- single celled organisms
    • helminthes- 2 types. flatworms and roundworms
    • acanthocephanlans- thornyheaded worms. rare in c+d
    • arthropods- hard, segmented bodies. insects+spiders
  20. examples of flatworms?
    • trematodes- flukes
    • cestodes-tapes
  21. example of roundworms?
  22. what are the 5 types of hosts?
    definitive, intermediate, transport(paratenic), aberrant(accidental), reservoir
  23. whats aberrant mean?
  24. describe the definitive host?
    host in which the parasite reaches the reprod stage
  25. whats a intermediate host?
    parasite needs a host for a specific life stage only
  26. transport host is what? aka.?

    host just carries immature form of parasite, no developement occurs
  27. whats a unnatural host who may or may no be hurt by a parasite?
    accidental (aberrant) host
  28. reservoir host?
    wildlife hosts of parasites that make eradication of them difficult
  29. what are the 2 types of life cycles?
    direct and indirect
  30. what a direct life cycle?
    para needs only one hose
  31. whats an indirect life cycle?
    intermedicate host required, maybe more than 1
  32. what are some ways to diagnose?
    • observe adult
    • see immature forms
    • seriological tests for ABs
    • emperical method based off CS
  33. what another name for routine treatmeant?
    prophylactic treatment
  34. point of a fecal exam?
    diagnose source of gi disease
  35. sources of gi disease?
    parasites, hemmorage of gi tract, pancreatic insufficiencies
  36. red stool means? from where?
    hematochezia, colon
  37. dark tarry stool? from where?
    melena, upper gi
  38. where does mocus in stol lcome from?
  39. microscop exam of stool? what are the 3 types?
    direct, float, smear
  40. what can you die smears with?
    iodine and diff
  41. what sg do most ova float?
  42. whats the most preferable sg range to read fecals?
  43. why no higher than 1.300 sg?
    debris float as well as eggs
  44. what are some solutions for flotations?
    saturated sugar and salt, sodium intrate, zinc sulfate
  45. saturated sugar is also known as?
    modified sheathers solution
  46. detail s of a modified sheathers solution?
    1lb sugar and 355mls of water

    6ml of phenol for perserivtate. sg- 1.275

    float 20-30mins
  47. adv of saturated sugar solution?
    inexpensive, readily aval ingred, doesnt distort ova, doesnt crystalize, long shelf life
  48. disadv of saturated sugar solution?
    sticky and messy, time, can distorte larve and cyysts
  49. saturated salt describe.
    350g salt + 1L of water
  50. disadv of saturated salt?
    less desirable, forms crystals, may distory, not everything floats
  51. saturated sodium nitrate is what?
    type of flotation solution
  52. SSN details?
    420g of NaNO3 and 1L of water.

    • sg= 1.250
    • floart time 10-15min
    • may even float fluke egss and GREAT at ova
  53. disadv of SSN?
    expensive, crystals and airbubbles form, distotrts if it sits over 20mins, floats more fecal debris
  54. details of zinc sulfate?
    386g ZnSO4 in 1L of water

    • sg=1.200
    • time 10-15min
    • most common,
  55. whats the most common float solution for giardia?
    zinc sulfate
  56. disadv of zinc sulfate?
    expensnive, may distort helminth ova,
  57. whats a comparable to zinc sulfate?
    • magnesius sulfate
    • 450g MgSO4 and 1L of water
  58. what are the 2 types of flotation?
    passive and centrifugal
  59. describe passive flotation
    • mix feces in cup
    • pour thru container
    • add float soution to form meniscus
    • place coverslip over top, wait, read
  60. how fast do you centrifuge fecals? how long?
    1500 rpm, 3-5mins
  61. how long do you wait after cover slip over menisc?
  62. When would you use centrifuagal sedimentation?
    looking for heavy ova (flukes)
  63. describe centrifugal sedimentation
    • mix feces with WATER
    • filter out debris
    • centrifuge 3-5min
    • pour off supernate
    • pipetee from top of the sediment
    • coverslip over samle read
  64. whats a baermann apparatus?
    concentrate method for larve
  65. what can yo usee in fecals?
    larve, eggs
  66. whats a quantative fecal exam?
    when you find the number off eggs per gram of feces
  67. when is the quantative fecal method used?
    evaluatige herd health
  68. what the mcmaster technique?
    weigh out feces, add solution, centrifuge, add to chamber (on slide), count
  69. what are the different ypes of serological tests available for parasites?
    IFA, ELISA, Aggutination, Westernblot

    most look for the Abs so interpretation is challenging
  70. whats the cdcs recc for deworming cats and dogs?
    • weeks of age. then every 3months until 1.
    • or monthly prevent to replace the 3
Card Set
General Parasites
Lab Tech
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