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What is symbiosis?
Mutualism, commensalism, parasitisim
what is commensalism?
one party draws a benifit but the neither are harmed
are most symbiotic relationships parasitic?
term for always parasitic?
term meaning may or may not be parasitic?
term for parasite oin wrong host?
prepatent period means?`
time the parasite enters until reproduction occurs
patent infection mean?
female producing eggs
incubation time is when?
time from infection to disease
what are the 2 types of vectors?
biological and mechanical
a fomite is what?
what type of xfer?
inanimate - mech xfer
scientific names require for naming?
genus and species
kings play chess or fight green snakes
king phy class order fam gen species
the be sucessful the parasite must .....
- gain entry into host
- avoid destruction
- avoid killing host
- kids make it to new host
how parasites gain entry?
ingest, skin, some sort of vector, transplacental, trans mammary
describe transplacental migration
larve in blood circulation become dormant and migrate into organs and muscles. animal prego. when prego ... reactivate, cross placenta, larve in neonate.
xmammary the game but throught mam glands
how do parasites cause disease?
cell or tissue distruction, interfear with blood supply, mechanical obstruction, compete for nutrients, irritation, xmit disease, cause allergies, eat our blood, allow for secondary infection
what are some types of parasites?
what are the parasite families? describe them?
- protozoa- single celled organisms
- helminthes- 2 types. flatworms and roundworms
- acanthocephanlans- thornyheaded worms. rare in c+d
- arthropods- hard, segmented bodies. insects+spiders
examples of flatworms?
- trematodes- flukes
example of roundworms?
what are the 5 types of hosts?
definitive, intermediate, transport(paratenic), aberrant(accidental), reservoir
whats aberrant mean?
describe the definitive host?
host in which the parasite reaches the reprod stage
whats a intermediate host?
parasite needs a host for a specific life stage only
transport host is what? aka.?
host just carries immature form of parasite, no developement occurs
whats a unnatural host who may or may no be hurt by a parasite?
accidental (aberrant) host
wildlife hosts of parasites that make eradication of them difficult
what are the 2 types of life cycles?
direct and indirect
what a direct life cycle?
para needs only one hose
whats an indirect life cycle?
intermedicate host required, maybe more than 1
what are some ways to diagnose?
- observe adult
- see immature forms
- seriological tests for ABs
- emperical method based off CS
what another name for routine treatmeant?
point of a fecal exam?
diagnose source of gi disease
sources of gi disease?
parasites, hemmorage of gi tract, pancreatic insufficiencies
red stool means? from where?
dark tarry stool? from where?
melena, upper gi
where does mocus in stol lcome from?
microscop exam of stool? what are the 3 types?
direct, float, smear
what can you die smears with?
iodine and diff
what sg do most ova float?
whats the most preferable sg range to read fecals?
why no higher than 1.300 sg?
debris float as well as eggs
what are some solutions for flotations?
saturated sugar and salt, sodium intrate, zinc sulfate
saturated sugar is also known as?
modified sheathers solution
detail s of a modified sheathers solution?
1lb sugar and 355mls of water
6ml of phenol for perserivtate. sg- 1.275
adv of saturated sugar solution?
inexpensive, readily aval ingred, doesnt distort ova, doesnt crystalize, long shelf life
disadv of saturated sugar solution?
sticky and messy, time, can distorte larve and cyysts
saturated salt describe.
350g salt + 1L of water
disadv of saturated salt?
less desirable, forms crystals, may distory, not everything floats
saturated sodium nitrate is what?
type of flotation solution
420g of NaNO3 and 1L of water.
- sg= 1.250
- floart time 10-15min
- may even float fluke egss and GREAT at ova
disadv of SSN?
expensive, crystals and airbubbles form, distotrts if it sits over 20mins, floats more fecal debris
details of zinc sulfate?
386g ZnSO4 in 1L of water
- time 10-15min
- most common,
whats the most common float solution for giardia?
disadv of zinc sulfate?
expensnive, may distort helminth ova,
whats a comparable to zinc sulfate?
- magnesius sulfate
- 450g MgSO4 and 1L of water
what are the 2 types of flotation?
passive and centrifugal
describe passive flotation
- mix feces in cup
- pour thru container
- add float soution to form meniscus
- place coverslip over top, wait, read
how fast do you centrifuge fecals? how long?
1500 rpm, 3-5mins
how long do you wait after cover slip over menisc?
When would you use centrifuagal sedimentation?
looking for heavy ova (flukes)
describe centrifugal sedimentation
- mix feces with WATER
- filter out debris
- centrifuge 3-5min
- pour off supernate
- pipetee from top of the sediment
- coverslip over samle read
whats a baermann apparatus?
concentrate method for larve
what can yo usee in fecals?
whats a quantative fecal exam?
when you find the number off eggs per gram of feces
when is the quantative fecal method used?
evaluatige herd health
what the mcmaster technique?
weigh out feces, add solution, centrifuge, add to chamber (on slide), count
what are the different ypes of serological tests available for parasites?
IFA, ELISA, Aggutination, Westernblot
most look for the Abs so interpretation is challenging
whats the cdcs recc for deworming cats and dogs?
- 18.104.22.168 weeks of age. then every 3months until 1.
- or monthly prevent to replace the 3