Card Set Information
what are the 4 types of protozoa?
flagellates, amoebae, ciliates, coccidians
types of flagellates?
giardia, tritrichomonas, trichomonas
what are the 2 life forms of giardia?
trophozoites and cysts
describe the trophozite form of giardia?
motile form, vegetative form, looks like a teardrop, 2 nuculi which look like eyes, have 8 flagella (4pairs)
what do giardia cysts look like?
13microns across, have 2 nuculi
who are the definitive hosts of giardia?
humans, dogs, cats, livestock
whats giardias intermediate host?
whats the infection site of giardia?
how does giardia vegitative form deivide?
asexually - longitudinal fission
are trophozoites capable of causing infection?
no, cysts only
how do you get giardia?
eating contaminated food or water. cyst form only
what pathogenisis mean?
mech of how a disease is caused
whats the pathogenisis of giardia?
attach to border of the small intesting
infections can be no CS to severe enteritis
suckers damage villi and cause diarrhea
has a high morbidity but low mortality
how long can cysts live w/o host?
2 weeks to a month
whats the prepatent period of giardia?
1 to 2 weeks
how do you diagnose giardia?
fecal cytology, direct smears, floats
how big is a giardia cyst?
what seriology test can find giargia?
CS of giardia?
cramping, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss, gas
tx of giardia?
whats the public health sign of giardia?
most common intest parasite in NA, noramlly human to human spread, no relationship between human and pet ownership and infection
prevention of giardia?
vaccine - nonore, BE CLEAN
what kills giardia?
phenol and bleach
tritrichomonas fetus is what type of protozoan?
what tritrichomonas fetus seen in?
cattle as a venerreal disease
tritrichomonas fetus causes what?
abortion and infertility
CS of tritrichomonas fetus in bulls?
very few - serology by a culture of preputal flesh
diagnosis of tritrichomonas fetus in cows?
see on cytology of prepuce of vagina - wobbles on slide
whats a common avian protozoa?
avian trichomonas CS?
infects upper GI tract, see cankers
how do you diagnose avian trichomonas
crop wash or stained smear of lesion (canker)
examples of ciliates?
balantidium coli normal resivor host is?
balantidium coli infects who?
dogs, humans, primates
balantidium coli direct life cycle?
fecal oral spread, cysts shed in feces (60microns), infect in large intestine
cs of balantidium coli?
ofter asymotomatic but can see diarrhea, abd pain, in debilitate humans CS severe
types of amoebae?
entamoeba histolytica is a type of what?
how is entamoeba histolytica spread?
what protozoa do humans typically spread to pets?
CS of entamoeba histolytica?
diarrhea, ulcerative colotis
entamoeba histolytica is would in what animals? where?
humans, dogs, cats, other mammales, large intest
are most amoeba pathogenic?
types of coccidians?
coccidia, cryptosporidium, toxoplasma, sarcocystis, neospora
characteristics of coccidians?
most spread by ingestion
inf might be in oocyst form, cyst,or trophozite
dx on floats of directs (hard ti find) (some serio tests avai)
term for passed in feces
term for resting form, may be passed in feces
term for motile form
term for destructive form
term for resting form in tissue
toxoplasma gondii definitive host is?
toxoplasma gondii intermediate host?
amphibians, fihs, reptiles, all mammals, humans and cats
toxoplasma gondii infects what body part?
jejunum and ileum
toxoplasma gondii affects intermediate hosts how?
brain, skeletal muscle, heart, lymphnodes
describe toxoplasma gondii oocysts
shed in feces, 12microns
describe toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites
destructive forms, only in tissue, 4-8microns
describe the lifecycle of toxoplasma gondii
there are 2 life cycles.
1 in def host - enteroepithelial cycle
1 in inter med host - extraintestinal cycle
describe the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii in the def host
cats ingest tissue cysts containing bradyzoites - usuallt mice
they then hatch and penetrate epitheliat cells of small intestine, reproduce, the spread UNSPORULATED oocysts
when does toxoplasma gondii cysts spore? how long take?
after being pooped. 1-3 days
CS of toxoplasma gondii in cats
any organ sys can be affected, self limiting to fatal,
lungs, neurological, ocular
75% of cats with anterior uveitis have?
how to dx toxoplasma gondii
ELISA Ab test
whats a positive ELISA test for toxoplasma gondii mean?
doesnt mean oocysts are being shed, 40% of cats are seropositive
tx of toxoplasma gondii
how do inter med host get toxoplasma gondii
ingest bradyzoites in meat or ingest oocysts
describe the life cycleof toxoplasma gondii in a intermed host
tachy form invade and reproduce in any tissue, tissue cysts containt bradyzoites in muscs, cns, organs.
toxoplasma gondii inter host CS?
toxoplasma gondii and babies issue?
transplacental xmission if the host does not have any AB protecting
how can a woman know theyre protected from toxoplasma gondii
how to prevent toxoplasma gondii
avoid cat litter, wear gloves if scooping poop, clean box 1-3 days before cysts can even from, cook meat, wash off fruit, cover outside sandboxes
neospora canium is what type of protozoa?
CS of neospora canium
puppies 5-6 weeks but 2-7 years old documentsed, neurological, stiffness, hyperextension of legs, muscle atrophy, seizures, head tilit
abortion in ruminants
neospora canium preventable by?
dx of neospora canium
serology, histology. PCR
tx of neospora canium
what a PCR test?
prevention of neospora canium?
dont feed raw meet diets, higest risk
intestinal coccida ex?
isopora, eimeria, cryptosporidium
describe the isopora and eimeria life cycles
direct life cycle only, def host passes cysts, must sporulate in 1-2 days, host eats infectice oocyst, sporozites hatch and inter intestinal cells
is eimeria found in cats and dogs?
common in puppies and kittens, reproduce in intestinal cells
whats the prepatent peropd of isospora?
CS of isospora?
diarrhea +- blood and moucus
tx of neospora canium
sulfonamides- albon, strong ammonium hydroxide to kill in environment
treat isospora in adults?
no cuz immune sys can handle
where does cryptosporidium seen?
sinz of cryptosporidium?
humans able to get cryptosporidium?
how is cryptosporidium spread?
fecal oral or water contamination
cryptosporidium most commonly seen in?
young calves or small ruminants.
CS of cryptosporidium
diarrhea, craming, malaise
what is autoinfection?
the ability of a parasite to reinfect a host without ever passing out of the host - can lead to overwhelimng infection
dx of cryptosporidium?
ELISA for ANTIGEN
4-6microns on FF
acid fast staining
tx of cryptosporidium?
public health signif of cryptosporidium?
can be fatal for immune compri. most human infection d.t water sources
immunocompetent can still be affect and be very ill
how to handle cryptosporidium?
highly resistant protozoa. wear masks and gloves, wash hans, drink bottle water only
sarcocystis is a type of ?
sarcocystis more than 1 kind?
most species of sarcocystis pathogenic?
main animals effected by sarcocystis?
rottweilers - dermatits, myocarditis,, encephalitis
horses - EPM
what is EPM?
equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is caused by what?
what is the definate host of sarcocystis neurona?
whats the intermed host of sarcocystis neurona?
racoon, armadillo, skunk
what type of host is a host for sarcocystis neurona?
how is sarcocystis neurona spread?
cs of EPM?
seizures, collapse, paresis/paralysis, muscle atrophy, ataxia
dx of EMP?
CSP - find Ab's, blood test only indicates exposure.
tx of EMP?
marquis antiprotozal paste - ponazuril- expensive