Chem 1160 chapter 8

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Chem 1160 chapter 8
2012-03-17 21:03:54
chemistry 1160 chapter

Chemistry 1160 chapter 8
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  1. The rows are called
  2. Elements in the same group in ------ size as you go down
  3. elements --------- in size as you go across a period
  4. Ionization energies decreases
    as you proceed down in a group;
  5. ionization energies increases as you
    go across a period.
  6. The first three ionization energies of beryllium, you can identify the element from
    the huge jump beween the core and valence electrons. (1 question on exam) The core ones take ALOT more energy to get rid of
  7. Electron affinities
    is energy change-gaining of electron by a gaseous atom

    More negative- morelikely to gain electron!
  8. amphoteric
    can be either an acid or a base
  9. the columns are called
  10. Pauli Exclusion Principle:
    No two electronsin an atom can have the same four quantumNumbers!
  11. n
    • principal
    • positive intergers (1,2,3)
    • Orbital energy (size)
  12. l
    • angular momentum
    • integers from 0 to n-1
    • orbital shape (The l values 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p, d, and f orbitals, respectively.)
  13. ml
    • magnetic
    • intergers from -l to 0 to +l
    • orbital orientation
  14. ms
    • spin
    • +1/2 or -1/2
    • direction of e- spin
  15. Higher nuclear charge --------- orbital energy
    lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions.
  16. An additional electron in the same orbital -------- the orbital energy
    additional electron in the same orbital raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions.
  17. Inner electrons shield outer electrons ---------- effectively than electrons in the same sublevel.
    Inner electrons shield outer electrons more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel.
  18. The Effect of Electron Repulsions (Shielding)
    Additional electron(s) in the same orbital

    Additional electrons in inner orbitals
  19. Electrons in a 2s orbital --------------- in a 2p orbital.
    can penetrate toward the nucleus better than an electron
  20. 2s orbitals are less shielded by electrons and the orbital is therefore
    more stable.
  21. Order of sublevel energies
  22. Aufbau Principle
    Electron Configuration is built up byprogressively adding electrons. As they are added, they assume theirmost stable configurations.
  23. Hund’s Rule
    Every orbital is partially filled before it is doubly filled.
  24. Inner (core) electrons
    are those seen in the previous noble gas and any completed transition series.
  25. Outer electrons are those
    in the highest energy level of n value.
  26. Valence electrons are those
    • involved in forming compounds.
    • Of the main group the valence = outer electrons.
    • Of the transition elements we count the ns and (n-1)d as valence electrons because they participate in bonding.c.
    • Of the lanthanides the valence electrons are ns and (n-2)f.
  27. Exceptions, 1/2 filled S sometimes
    Cr and Cu
  28. Atomic size trend
    increases left and down Francium is the biggest
  29. Ionization Energy
    increases up and right
  30. electron affinity
    increases up and right
  31. Metallic behavior
    increases left and down
  32. Cations: Ions get
    smaller across period and smaller than original atoms(Lose electrons!)
  33. Anions:
    Ions also get smaller across period and larger thanoriginal atoms and much largerthan cations!(Gain electrons!)