BIO100 - Test 2

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AshantaeG
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141176
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BIO100 - Test 2
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2012-03-14 09:24:57
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Biology Life Science
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Biology 100 Life Science
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  1. What type of bond is water?


    Between what?
    Covalent.

    Water and Hydrogen. (H20)
  2. What % of our bodies is made of water?
    70%
  3. What % of Earth is made of water?
    70-75%
  4. Acidic Solution: pH scale and example
    pH scale: 1-6


    ex: urine, lemon juice, gastric juice
  5. Neutral Solution: pH scale and example
    pH scale: 7


    ex: water
  6. Basic Solution: pH scale and example
    pH scale: 8-14


    ex: household ammonia, bleach
  7. Solutions
    Dissolve compounds.

    ex: sugar, salt - dissolve in water.
  8. Solvents
    Liquid that can dissolve substances.


    ex: water
  9. Solutes.
    Substance that is being dissolved.
  10. The more H+ ions a solution has, the more _______ it will be.
    Acidic.
  11. A pH of ___ is neutral.
    7


    ex: water
  12. A pH of __ is very basic.
    14


    ex: Alkaline, Sodium Hydroxide
  13. As the pH increases, ther solution becomes more _____.
    Basic
  14. As the pH decreases, the solution becomes more ______.
    Acidic
  15. In chemistry, what color does the paper turn for acids?
    PINK
  16. In chemistry, what color does the paper turn for bases?
    BLUE
  17. The pH paper is called " __________ ."
    Litmus Paper
  18. Normal pH for Homestasis => Normal Health, is?
    7.35-7.45
  19. If a body reaches a pH of 7.8+, what happens?
    Alkalosis


    ex: convulsions, anxiety, hyperventilation
  20. If a body reaches a pH of 6.8-, what happens?
    Acidosis


    ex: coma, pneumonia, asthma, COPD
  21. Carbohydrates
    Dietary energy, storage, plant structure
  22. Lipids
    Long-term energy storage (for fats)

    Hormones (for steroids)
  23. Proteins
    Enzymes, structure, storage, contraction, transport, etc

    ex: muscle
  24. Nucleic Acid
    Information storage
  25. What is a calorie?
    Measurement of heat to burn energy.
  26. What is metabolism?
    All chemical reactions that occur in the body. (Breakdown)
  27. Anabolic Reactions ___________ .
    Build, require energy.
  28. _________ Reactions build up, require energy.
    Anabolic.
  29. Catabolic Reactions ___________ .
    Break down, give off energy.
  30. __________ Reactions break things down and give off energy.
    Catabolic.
  31. What is the #1 source of energy in the body?
    Sugar (Carbs)

    • -carbon
    • -hyrogen
    • -oxygen
  32. What is a Monosaccharide?
    • -A carbohydrate that does not hydrolyze.
    • -Mono - means "one"

  33. What is a Polysaccharide?
    • -A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
    • -Poly - meaning "many"


  34. What is the #1 source of energy in the body?
    Lipids (fats)

    • -carbon
    • -hydrogen
    • -oxygen

    (Lipids are water insoluble.)
  35. What is the #3 source of energy in the body?
    Proteins (Muscle)

    • -carbon
    • -hydrogen
    • -oxygen
    • -nitrogen
  36. 1 calorie = enough heat to raise water ___ .
    1 degree C.
  37. 1g carbs = ___ calories

    1g protein = ___ calories

    1g lipids = ___ calories
    1g carbs = 4 calories

    1g protein = 4 calories

    1g lipids = 9 calories
  38. Glucose is a major component of ________ .
    Disaccharides
  39. Fructose is ____ ____ .
    Fruit sugar.
  40. Galactose is a component of _______ .
    Lactose.
  41. Maltose is ____ ____ .
    • Malt sugar
    • glucose + glucose
  42. Sucrose is _____ _____ .
    • -Table sugar
    • -glucose + fructose
  43. Lactose is ____ ____ .
    • Milk sugar
    • glucose + galactose
  44. Glycogen is ______________________ .
    Storage form of glucose.

    • -liver
    • -muscles
    • -fats

    (in animals and humans)
  45. Starch is _____________ .
    Storage form of glucose in plants.
  46. Cellulose is __________ .
    Storage form of glucose in plants. (FIBER)
  47. Fats (Lipids) can be _________ and _________ .
    Saturated and Unsaturated.
  48. Saturated Fats are saturated with _________ .
    Hydrogen.


  49. Unsaturated fats have less __________ .
    Hydrogen.

  50. (Proteins)

    Amino Acids are made of: __, __, __, and __ .
    • C - carbon
    • H - hydrogen
    • O - oxygen
    • N - nitrogen
  51. Nucleic acids are used for ______ .

    And are made up of: __, __, __ .
    Memory. (information storage)

    Phosphate, Nitrogenous Base, Sugar
  52. DNA is ______ ______ and it's functions are?
    • -double stranded

    • -Carry info (ex: oxygen, iron)
    • -Replication of cells
  53. RNA is ______ ______ and it's functions are?
    • - single stranded

    • -Carry info
    • -Make proteins
  54. The "Cell Theory" (Schleiden & Schwann) states :

    1)
    2)
    3)
    • 1) The cell is the smalled form of life.
    • 2) All life forms are made up of one or more cells.
    • 3) Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.
  55. Per Rudolph Virchow, define:

    "Omnis cellula e cellula"
    "All cells from cells."

    "All cells only arise from pre-existing cells."
  56. All organisms are made up of ____ .
    • -Cells
    • -Universal unit of life
    • -The most basic unit of Structure and Function (anatomy and physiology)

    Ex: Red Blood Cells

  57. Robert Hooke named the ___ .
    Cell
  58. Anton van Leeuwenhoek uses _____________ .
    Optics (lenses) for microscopic study.
  59. Schleiden & Schwann wrote the _____ _____ .
    • "Cell Theory"
    • which states...
    • 1) The cell is the smalled form of life.
    • 2) All life forms are made up of one or more cells.
    • 3) Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.
  60. How does the Light Microscope work?
    • Visible light is passed through the cell and then through the lenses.
    • The image then refracted by the lens and magnified as it is projected to the eyes.
    • Limited in resolution and magnification.
    • Can study live specimens.
  61. Magnification is __________________ .
    Ratio of objects image to its actual size. (1,000x)
  62. Resolution is _____ .
    Clarity.

    (Max 1um = 10-3 mm or 10 -6m)
  63. How does the Electron Microscope work?
    • Focuses a beam of electrons through the cell onto its detection surfaces.
    • Greater magnification & resolution.
    • Kills the cell.
  64. (Resolution: 0.1nm = 10-3um = 10-9m)
  65. Transmission Electron Microscope is used to:
    • **Looks at replicas of dead cells, after fixationang heavy metal ion staining.
    • Study cell organelles by cell biologists.
    • Magnets focus electrons, not lenses.
    • Heavy metals used as stains.
  66. Scanning Electron Micropscope is used to:
    • **Looks at replicas of dead cells, after fixationang heavy metal ion staining.
    • Study surfaces of organisms.
    • Surface is usually covered with a layer of gold.
    • Gold electrons are excited and secondary.
    • Electrons are focused onto the screen.
    • Used to see the topography of cells (almost 3D)
  67. Robert Hooke (1655)
    • Experimental scientist.
    • Observes cells of a cork tree with primitive microscope.
  68. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674)
    • Discovers Protozoa with a refined microscope.
    • Discovers Bacteria.
    • Discovered bacteria and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more.
    • Wrote down discoveries on paper.
  69. Schleiden & Schwann (1838)
    Propose "Cell Theory."

    • Smallest living unit is the cell.
    • Every living thing is made up of cells.
  70. Kolliker (1857)
    • Describes Mitochondria in muscle cells.
    • Mitochondria - cell organelle (small organ, inside cell)
  71. Koch (1882)
    • Uses aniline dyes to identify TB and Cholera Bacteria.
    • Germ theory of disease.
  72. Golgi (1889)
    • Uses stains with silver nitrate to discover Golgi Apparatus.
    • Cell organelle that packages material to keep material from infiltrating the cells cytoplasm.
  73. Ruska (1931)
    • Builds 1st Transmission Electron Microscope.
    • X-rays, penetrates cell.
  74. When was the first Scanning Electron Microscope made?
    • 1965
    • Scans the outside of a cell.
  75. Which cell is the smallest:

    Animal
    Plant
    Bacteria?
    Bacteria
  76. List two similarities of Eukaryoke and Prokaryote cells.
    • They both have cytoplasm.
    • They both have membranes.
  77. Name pros and cons of: Light Microscope
    • Can study live specimens.
    • Limited in resolution and magnification.
  78. Name pros and cons of: Electron Microscope
    • Greater magnification & resolution.
    • Kills the cell.
  79. What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    Prokaryote cells have no true nucleus. There is a space called a nucleoid that consists of RNA.

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