Kashrut and kosher, Judaism
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What does kosher mean?
Right and fit.
What is the Hebrew word for forbidden food?
Which biblical passages mainly deal with food laws?
- Leviticus 11
- Deuteronomy 14
Give the quote about holiness that appears many times in the Torah (can be used in kosher parts etc).
"For I am the Lord your God, therefore sanctify yourself and be holy as I am holy".
What is the purpose of the food laws?
- Express holiness/separateness of covenant people.
- Discipline towards holiness.
- Maimonedes thought it was to "train us to master our appetites".
What does Talmud say about a man's table?
It's like the alter.
What is a mitzvot whose reason cannot be known with any certainty called?
- The food laws fall into this category.
What does the Torah say about eating locusts? And how did the Talmud/ rabbinic authorities develop this?
The Torah says that some locusts are forbidden, but since it is not clear which type was permitted, the rabbinic authorities forbade every kind of locust, and by extension, all insects! (Torah bit in Leviticus 11)
What kind of fish can be eaten according to Kashrut.
Those that have both fins and scales.
Name an animal that cannot be eaten. And comment on the historical significance as well of this particular law.
- Especially significant because of times in Jewish history when keeping this particular law cost Jews their lives.
- 200 BCE Antiochus IV killed many for not eating pig.
What does "clean" mean in a kosher sense?
Ceremonial cleanliness. The pig for example, is not unclean in itself, but is unclean to the people of Israel - the discipline is for them. [Understand this concept]
Jews are forbidden to eat blood. Write reason given in Torah for this.
- "The blood is the life". (Deuteronomy 12)
- Blood is too sacred to be eaten.
What does kashering mean?
making something kosher.
Name the two processes involved in removing blood from meat. Also what is the name of the Jewish butcher?
- Jewish butcher - shohet.
What food-related prohibition appears 3 times in the Torah? How does the Talmud elaborate on this mitzvot? What does this mean for the person in the kitchen?
- "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk". (eg. Deuteronomy 14)
- Talmud elaborates - meat & milk must not be boiled together, eaten together, no benefit should be derived from mixture.
- Separate utensils, cutlery, towels, even sinks!
What does parve mean?
Food containing neither meat nor milk. Means "neutral".
Which food law applies only at Passover?
Any food which is hametz (leavened, fermented) is forbidden.
What is the purpose of kashrut?
- To "walk with God" in every aspect of their lives - Halakah (so to lead a halakhic life).
- Maintain holiness / separateness (Jews have to be kedushah)
- In the olden days, it may have been introduced as a test of obedience and also that Israelites learnt self-denial.
- Also to separate Israelites from other nations socially (so no idolatry etc).
Laws of kashrut do not just originate from the ______, they also have their origins in the ______.
Laws of kashrut do not just originate from the Torah, they also have their origins in the Talmud.
What is the word for modesty/ modesty laws?
Quote from Tenakh about modesty laws?
- God said that Tznius is beautiful and in the Book of Micah (Tenakh) is iteels Jews:
- "To walk humbly before your G-d".
- Only biblical reference, modesty is not even a mitzvot.
The quote in the Book of ____ is the only biblical reference, and the modesty code really came from the ____.
The quote in the Book of Micah is the only biblical reference, and the modesty code came really from the rabbis.
What is the modesty laws closely linked to?
Role of women in Jewish society.
What does the Talmud say about modesty?
- That a woman is obliged to be exeedingly modest, and that "all her glory shall be within" and "she is to conceal herself from every man in the world".
- Not even smallest part of body shall be exposed.
- Not a single hair shall be exposed.
- Her voice shall not be heard.
What is the role of women in terms of modesty and helping men?
- Help men not to sin by dressing modestly.
- Sinful thoughts can come easily to man and community avoid this by prohibiting men and women to touch unless married.
- The fear of the "Evil Inclination" is included in one of Al chet confessions.
What are some of the dress codes for women (especially in an orthodox society?)
- A married woman must cover all her hair.
- A woman's knees, elbows and collarbones must remain covered.
- Clothes must be loose fitting.
You can measure how _____ a Jewish woman is by looking at how she ______.
You can measure how orthodox a Jewish woman is by looking at how she dresses.
KOSHER CLOTHES - MATERIALS. What is the name of the law of forbidden mixtures of materials to wear?
- Prohibits wearing of a fabric containing both wool and linen (this forbidden mixture is called shatnez).
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