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What does the term “differentiate” mean?
Become different cells that your body requires.
What is a pluripotent stem cell?
Form any cell in the body (220 types of cell).
What is multipotent stem cell?
Can only become certain cells (limited).
Explain the controversy surrounding the use of human embryonic stem cells for research. Where do embryonic stem cells come from and how do scientists gain access to them to conduct research?
Some who disagrees with this is because they believe that embryonic stem cell is killing life. To obtain an embryo for research, you must kill the embryo because you have to puncture the embryo and suck out the fluid.
Explain how induced-pluripotent stem cells created in a laboratory and how, in the future, they may help resolve the stem cell controversy.
The way how IPSC works, is that they take your own cell, manipulate it and make it into an embryonic cell which makes it pluripotent. This method is not destroying an embryo.
What is Phase 0 (pre-clinicals)?
- a. Animal testing/laboratory testing (no animals)
- 1. Tested on chimpanzees and rats
- 2. See if medication works
What is Phase 1 (human testing)?
- a. Sample size: tens of people
- b. Safety for humans
- c. Dosage (determine through animals)
What is Phase 2?
- a. Sample size: hundreds of people
- 1. The people come from commercial advertisement, for example. “Do you have back pain?”
- 2. Doctors may recommend them.
c. Determine all side effects.
What is Phase 3?
a. Sample size: thousands of people
- b. Rare side effects
- 1. Phase 2 test for general side effects)
d. If it is good, they can get a chance of FDA approval.
e. Expensive to run it.
What is Phase 4?
a. FDA has approved item
- b. Post-market surveillance
- 1. Look for long term side effects
Recall the video and our class discussion of Dr. Hans Keirstead’s research on using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to treat patients with spinal cord injuries. What are some serious concerns/side effects of using hESCs as treatment?
There may be a chance that the stem cells would divide dramatically forming tumors.
What are the embryonic genes?
a. KLF4, SOX Z, C-Myc, Nanog, Oct-3/4, LIN-28
b. When you read these genes they can become embryonic stem cells.
Describe the creation of IPSCs.
Get an adult cell/skin cell then inject it with a common cold virus to produce an embryonic stem cell.
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
Verification and modification made so the product can be used.
Shift product to correct destination.
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Involved in cellular respiration.
Blows up glucose to allow cell to use ATP since cell can’t take glucose.
What is the function of the vesicle?
Storage and transport.
What is the function of DNA?
Information-containing molecules in the cell.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Container for genetic materials.
What are the components of the nucleus?
Nucleolus, nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores.
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Makes all the ribosomes you need.
Ribosomes for any cell make proteins.
What is the function of the nuclear envelope?
Stores DNA inside it.
What is the function of the nuclear pores?
Holes that allows ribosome to get out of the nucleus.
When ribosome sets out it is called protein production.
What is the function of ribosomes?
What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Location where proteins are made, which ribosomes make them.
What is the function of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?
What is the function of the Cytosol?
Fluid filling of cell’s inside.
Provides internal support.
What is the function of the Plasma Membrane?
Separate outside and inside of the cell (cell boundary)
Regulate movement in and out of the cell
Ex. A bouncer at a club.
For animal cells, be able to identify & know the function of a lysosome. NOTE: on the animal cell image, both lysosomes and vesicles are circular in appearance so learn to distinguish the two.
Clean up things; get rid of any type of cell junk; Break down food.
What is the function of the cell wall?
Additional support on the outside of the cell.
What is the function of the central vacuole?
Stores water and hydrate the plant.
Storing water gives nutrients to plant cells.
What is the function of the Chloroplast?
Runs reaction of photosynthesis and makes glucose.
Explain the endosymbiotic theory & evidence that supports it.
Origin of eukaryotic cells
Larger prokaryote would ingest smaller prokaryote. Smaller prokaryote becomes a mitochondria and makes food for larger prokaryote. Mitochondria are independent, they divide on their own. They have different DNA sequence which shows they were two different beings. Mitochondria are smaller so they divide before the eukaryote divides.
What is the function of the protein channels?
They are like open door ways, where they allow glucose to move in and out.
What is the function of protein receptors?
Binds to molecules and aid in cell communication.
Ex. Viral cell will tell cell to make more virus.
What is the function of microtubules?
Provides internal structure/support.
Moves organelles (pathway for proteins.
What is the function of microfilaments?
Skinnier and slimmer protein fibers.
Entire cell movement (White blood cell = immune cells).
Microfilaments allow movements of cells.
Provide internal support.
Describe the bone densities of men and women as they age.
After age 30, bone density goes down.
Men remain a constant decrease in bone density.
Men can maintain more bone density because they have testosterone.
Women at age 45 have a large decrease in bone density and have no estrogen because their ovaries stop working (menopause).
From the drawings in class of the digestive system, bloodstream, pancreas, and body cell, explain how blood glucose is regulated after a meal in a normal person.
Small intestine absorbs the glucose.
Glucose goes to blood vessel.
Insulin binds cell receptor.
Insulin protein receptors tell the cell to import glucose.
What is type-1 diabetes?
No insulin production so guar never leaves the blood vessel.
Treatment: insulin injections.
What is type-2 diabetes?
Type-2 diabetes has two causes:
- Cause #1:
- Produce low insulin.
Treatment: medication that help produce more insulin.
- Cause #2:
- Low number of protein receptors.
What is the function of motor protein?
They transport protein.
What are the two motor protein and their function?
Kinesin moves in one direction while dynein goes the opposite.