Pbio Final

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Pbio Final
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  1. A) a fair price..
    Family farmers must receive a fair price for their coffee harvest.
  2. B) Direct trade
    eliminating unnecessary middlemen and empowering farmers to develop the business capacity needed to compete in the global marketplace.
  3. C) Democratic and transparent organizations
    Fair Trade farmers and farm workers decide how to invest Fair Trade revenues, and proof of a democratic process is required.
  4. D) Community Development
    Fair Trade farmers and workers invest Fair Trade premiums in social and business development projects like scholarship programs, healthcare services and quality improvement training.
  5. E) Environmental sustainability
    Harmful chemicals and GMOs are prohibited
  6. In this article they are researching a drug that antagonizes (blocks) the receptors in your brain that respond to THC. Much like atropine blocks the Acetylcholine receptors. What benefit do they suggest might come from blocking canabinoid receptors?
    People consume less calories and burn more.
  7. In the research on taranablant people taking 12 milligrams of the drug consumed ______ percent fewer calories than those taking a placebo.A) 11 B) 48 C) 31 D) 27
    D
  8. What negative side effects were noted? circle all that applyA) inability to operate motor vehicles B) irritability C) redness of the eyes D) gastrointestinal upset, nausea
    B, D
  9. According to Grounds for Change, how many migratory bird species utilize shade grown coffee plantings as a place to live? A) 75 B) 45 C) 150 D) 120
    C
  10. for starters, in this article on performance enhancing brain drugs, the author suggests that it is only cheating, and therefore should be regulated, in what situation?
    Organized competition or formal testing of abilities
  11. "Personal achievements impersonally achieved are not truly the achievements of persons," said the report "Beyond Therapy" by the US President's Council on ____________, chaired at the time by ethicist Leon Kass.
    Bioethics
  12. Studies on healthy volunteers have shown the cognitive effects of enhancing drugs to be ______, but sufficient to be considered helpful.
    mild
  13. In this article, how is the drug delivered to the patients? A) injection B) smoking C) topical patch D) nasal spray
    D
  14. The treatment is "a totally new route for increasing arousal, and the new study shows it to be relatively benign," said Jerome Siegel, "It reduces sleepiness without causing ____________."
    edginess
  15. You should be able to associate the drug Orexin A is an aid to prevent what?
    Effects of sleepiness.
  16. Does the drug have any notable effect on people who are already alert?
    No
  17. The drug Modafinil (Provogil, or Alertec in Canada) activates what?
    neurons that respond to Orexin A
  18. anerobic fermentation =
    Alcohol
  19. Sugar + yeast (w/o O2) =
    2(ethanol) + 2 (CO2)
  20. The concentration of sugar we start with determines...
    the concentration of alcohol we get
  21. As a drug, ethanol is a...
    sedative
  22. Fermented fruit juice (up to 15% alcohol)
    wine
  23. Grape juice can reach 20% sugar when grown in what kind of climate?
    Mediterranean climate
  24. Mead = fermented...
    honey
  25. In Africa, palm wine is made from sweet sap of...
    palm trees
  26. This enxyme in saliva converts starch to sugar. Add water and yeast and you can have alcohol.
    Amylase
  27. Fermented malt sugars (and grains)
    beer
  28. Germinated roasted barley =
    malt
  29. Honey malt = what type of roasting?
    Light roasting. Chocolate Malt is high temp roasting.
  30. Rice wine in Asia...
    Sake
  31. Lactose sugar to alcohol...
    kefir
  32. Distilling wine or beer concentrates the alcohol, to greater than 17%
    Liquor
  33. What is malt liquor really?
    More potent beer!
  34. Ice distilling is really...
    ice fractionation. As ice crystals grow, remove them. Leaves behind more concentrated alcohol.
  35. Liquors contain an alcohol content up to...
    95%
  36. Distilled wines =
    Brandy, cognac
  37. Fortified wines =
    sherry, port
  38. Brandies with added flavorings, syrups usually
    Liquers, cordials
  39. What drink can have potatoes as a starch source?
    Potatoes
  40. What is an advantage of distillation?
    You can start with really low quality grain
  41. Alocohol extraction of herbs, including wormwood and anise
    Absinthe
  42. Artemisia absinthium =
    wormwood
  43. This developed a reputation of being more than just alcohol. Could have visions. People such as Hemingway, Van Goh and Oscar Wilde
    Absinthe
  44. Absinthe was said to cause...
    Epilepsy and tuberculosis
  45. Alcohol that has beginnings with molasses and the sugar trade.
    Rum
  46. What gives us tequila?
    Blue agave
  47. Proof =
    The percent of alcohol times 2
  48. In 1000 BC, Homer speaks of this natural mineral, mined from soil, as a use to drive away pests.
    Sulphur
  49. In the early middle ages, this was used to control covered smut in wheat.
    Copper
  50. Soaking seeds in what meant that the smut would be free of disease?
    Copper kettle. But copper from the kettle gets into the water.
  51. The grape species in Europe...
    Vitis vinifera
  52. Most commonly grown species of grape in the Americas...
    Vitis labrusca
  53. These people made wine from grapes at least 5,000 years ago.
    Egyptians
  54. The Roman god of wine and parties.
    Bachus
  55. Who kept the skill of winemaking alive through the Dark Ages?
    Monks in Catholic monasteries
  56. Recognized as the premier wine producers in Europe.
    French
  57. A symbol of the French identity.
    Wine
  58. Deep red, blue, black grapes make a...
    dark red wine
  59. Can you make white wine from red or black grapes?
    Yes, every grape has white juice on the inside.
  60. How can farmers grow seedless grapes, like the ones you buy at the store?
    They start with a mutant that doesn't produce seeds, and clone it.
  61. Vitis labrusca is good for what?
    Jams and jellies, not wine.
  62. A new disease that appeared in the French vineyards in 1848. Results from infections of leaves by a fungal pathogen.
    Powdery mildew
  63. What helped cure powdery mildew?
    Sulfur!
  64. What was a solution to the powdery mildew problem?
    Cross Vitis labrusca with Vitis vinifera, to make hybrids
  65. A new malady in the vineyards in the 1860s, causing leaves to shrivel and damage done to the roots.
    Dry leaf disease.
  66. The root feeding aphid that was causing dry leaf disease...
    Phylloxera
  67. Where did the aphid causing dry leaf disease come from?
    North America. North American plants were resistant.
  68. What was the solution to dry leaf disease?
    Grafting the roots of American grapes onto the stems of French-Hybrid grapes
  69. Another pathogen in European vineyards, this time in 1878. Produces masses of spores and fluffy mycelia whenever the weather id damp.
    Downy mildew
  70. Discovers the concoction that kills the fungus, Bordeaux mixture.
    Millardet
  71. Bordeaux mixture is now...
    one of the most widely used fungicides today!
  72. What did Europe turn to while France was facing these difficulties with wine?
    Bourbon, whiskey, scotch, gin and vodka.
  73. After the 1849 Gold Rush, California turns to...
    wine production
  74. Did the grape diseases play a part in the French Revolution?
    NO
  75. Rauwolfia serpentina =
    snakeroot
  76. Snakeroot contains _________, a chemical that reduces affect of adrenaline.
    reserpine
  77. Reserpine becomes the first widely used sedative in ________ _________ practice for the treatment of mental illness.
    Western Medical
  78. Reserpines in such great demand that plant was nearly.....
    Harvested to extinction
  79. Patients being treated for mental illness with reserpine showed...
    Decrease in blood pressure
  80. Today, what is reserpine mostly used for?
    Heart medication for hypertension
  81. These were once widely accepted as useful drugs for mental illness.
    Sedative barbituates and stimulant amphetamines
  82. Name a few drugs once approved in "Psychiatry"
    Opium, cocaine, reserpine and LSD, amphetamines and barbituates
  83. Today, there is controversy about which psychiatric drugs?
    Ritalin and prozac
  84. Studies suggest that the popular antidepressents are no more effective than what?
    A placebo
  85. Over what percent of Americans drink at least one cup of coffee a day?
    50%
  86. Coffee is second only to what in the global commodities market and is known as "Black gold"
    Crude oil
  87. Acts as an insencticide in plants. Quite a few plants contain it.
    Caffeine
  88. What other plants contain caffeine?
    Tea, Yerba mate, Cola nitida, chocolate, Guarana
  89. Caffeine gives us what?
    Adrenaline and noradrenaline
  90. What produces adrenaline in the body?
    the kidney
  91. What produces noradrenaline?
    Heart
  92. Adrenaline and noradrenaline together give us what response?
    Fight or flight
  93. Dilates some blood vessels, increases blood flow to muscles. Closes blood vessels to skin and head, causes loss of appetite. Increases urination
    Adrenaline
  94. Increases blood pressure, circulates the glucose, the oxygen.
    Noradrenaline
  95. Is adrenaline available as an over the counter drug?
    No
  96. What is prescription epinephrine, injectable adrenaline, used for?
    Allergies
  97. Caffeine does not cause a dramatic rise in blood glucose, so we...
    crash
  98. Withdrawal symptoms of caffeine include...
    headache, irritability, tiredness
  99. How many cups of espresso would you have to drink in a short time in order to die?
    100
  100. The coffee fruit are?
    Cherries
  101. Why must coffee cherries be handpicked?
    Not all of them ripen at once.
  102. Where is coffee native to?
    Ethiopia
  103. Who discovers coffee around 1500 AD and begin to roast seeds and brew a drink?
    Arab traders
  104. In the 1600s, only what group of people produce coffee?
    Arabs
  105. Arabs could receive the death penalty for selling what to Europeans?
    Live, not roasted, coffee seeds.
  106. An Indian travels where and brigns home coffee seeds to begin plantationsi n India?
    Mecca
  107. After India, who begins to grow coffee plantations in their colonies?
    The Dutch
  108. The first European nation to produce coffee is the Dutch. Tremendous wealth for...
    The Dutch East India Co.
  109. What replaces alcohol as a social drink in Europe?
    Coffee
  110. A famous British insurance company that started out as a coffee shop on the docks.
    Lloyd's
  111. In the 1840s, there is a what in Europe?
    Black Gold Rush! (Coffee)
  112. What appears in coffee in 1870?
    Rust
  113. When coffee rust kills a plant, the leaves die and new healthy leaves grow back. These don't last though. Why?
    Rust from nearby plants gets on them, infecting the plant all over again.
  114. In 1875, what area is in ruins and switches from coffee to tea and rubber because of rust.
    Ceylon
  115. Because of rust, what becomes the world's center for coffee plantations?
    The Americas
  116. What are the three top countries in terms of coffee production today?
    Brazil, Columbia and Vietnam
  117. The US buys what percent of world coffee production?
    30%
  118. Shade grown coffee provides what?
    Habitat for wildlife
  119. In the 1970s, big companies began growing coffee in the sun with many insecticides and chemicals, killing...
    habitat for wildlife
  120. What is a limitation of shade grown coffee?
    Yields are low
  121. Many US what migrate to South America and use environments of shade grown coffee to live?
    Song birds
  122. Certifies growers as Eco-OK is they meet the criteria.
    Rainforest Alliance
  123. Markets coffee grown only by small farmers, using a direct marketing approach
    Equal exchange
  124. What is the biggest threat to the world's coffee farmers?
    Producers of energy drinks
  125. What else can be fair trade?
    Tea, chocolate, bananas.
  126. This is wrapped in leafs of betel vine and chewed with a little lime.
    Areca fruit
  127. A mixed stimulant that becomes addictive and causes diseases of the mouth (red mouth)
    Betel nuts
  128. Sell Betel nuts on the street side in glass booths.
    Betel nut beauties
  129. Celastrus edulis =
    khat
  130. A nerve stimulant, chewed fresh leaves. Causes arousal, excitation, eurphoria
    Cathine
  131. Reputation to reduce libido. The anti-aphrodisiac
    Khat
  132. Piper methysticum =
    Kava Kava
  133. A mild sedative, used in Polynesia as a religious ritual. Preparation requires grating and soaking roots in water to prepare a tea.
    Kava kava
  134. In the US, this is a herbal supplement to ease anxiety, lower stress, calm the agitated
    Kava kava
  135. Over 25 reported causes of liver damage related to this plants use...
    Kava kava
  136. Aminita muscaria =
    a poisonous mushroom
  137. Muscarine is a mimic of what?
    Acetylcholine
  138. A central nervous system stimulant that leads to spastic paralysis
    Acetylcholine
  139. Eating mushrooms is said to induce...
    Twitching, excitement, euphoria, invicible feels, impulse for violence, self mutilation.
  140. This passes through the body quickly. Must drink urine for full effect.
    Mushrooms
  141. Who was likely tripping on muscarine when they invaded?
    Vikings
  142. A neurotransmitter in pain perception pathway. Important in transmitting the perception of chronic pain.
    Substance P
  143. What parts of your body does the brain's pain map miss?
    Brain and heart
  144. Heat causes special what to open, starting impulse along nerve which the brain perceives as heat.
    Portals
  145. A chemical that mimics the action of substance P, causes the sensation of pain we interpret as heat.
    Capsaicin
  146. Capsicum annum
    The location of capsaicin, in hot peppers and sweet bell peppers
  147. Where, other than food, can capsaicin be?
    Heat wraps
  148. Used as a topical treatment for arthritis.
    Capsaicin
  149. Mentha arvenis =
    Menthol. Isolated from peppermint.
  150. How does information travel in an animal nerve cell?
    From dendrite to cell body, from cell body out an axon.
  151. How fast does a wave travel?
    250 MPH
  152. Chrysanthemum cinerafiifolium =
    Pyrethrum
  153. Pyrethrum contains what?
    Pyrethrin
  154. Randomly opens portals, starts random, chatoic impulses and muscle spasms.
    Pyrethrin
  155. Pyrethrin is used as a what?
    Toxic insect spray
  156. This acts in the same was as pyrethrins, opens channels of insects. Spasms, convulsion and death.
    DDT
  157. Tetrodotoxin =
    Puffer fish
  158. Mimics AC, binds to the receptors, opens them.
    Nicotine
  159. Acetylcholine receptors come in two flavors...
    Nicotinic and muscarinic
  160. The world's fastest enzyme...
    Acetylcholinesterase (ACase)
  161. The most widely used garden insecticide
    Sevin
  162. What is the antidote to nerve gas attacks that US soldiers have at the ready?
    Atropine
  163. What acts like atropine?
    Tubocurarine
  164. Causes food poisoning
    Botulism toxin
  165. What year was cocaine outlawed?
    1914
  166. Opium, morphine and heroin are no longer available over the counter.
    1917
  167. Prohbition starts.
    1919
  168. Prohibition repealed
    1933
  169. Marijuana tax act
    1937
  170. Formal system of identifying drugs sold only under prescription implemented withe patent protection
    1938
  171. Salvia banned in Ohio
    2009
  172. Name two important uses of the sal resistant hemp fiber, in the era of wooden ships
    Hemp rope, hemp sails
  173. What fabric derives its name from Cannabis sativa?
    Canvas
  174. What famous document was written on hemp paper?
    Declaration of Independence
  175. Henry Ford used hemp fiber to build what?
    The body of a car
  176. Over 4,000 years ago, the father of _____ medicine wrote about medical uses of marijuana.
    Chinese
  177. What did Popular Mechanics say about hemp in the mid 1930s?
    IT was poised ot become the new billion dollar crop
  178. In the US, who were the first users of marijuana, generally speaking?
    Minorities
  179. How did Reefer Madness depict the behavior of marijuana users
    Violent, insane
  180. In the Smithsonian "Musuem of Fibers and Fabrics," what does it say about the hemp industry?
    There is no mention of hemp.

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