Family farmers must receive a fair price for their coffee harvest.
B) Direct trade
eliminating unnecessary middlemen and empowering farmers to develop the business capacity needed to compete in the global marketplace.
C) Democratic and transparent organizations
Fair Trade farmers and farm workers decide how to invest Fair Trade revenues, and proof of a democratic process is required.
D) Community Development
Fair Trade farmers and workers invest Fair Trade premiums in social and business development projects like scholarship programs, healthcare services and quality improvement training.
E) Environmental sustainability
Harmful chemicals and GMOs are prohibited
In this article they are researching a drug that antagonizes (blocks) the receptors in your brain that respond to THC. Much like atropine blocks the Acetylcholine receptors. What benefit do they suggest might come from blocking canabinoid receptors?
People consume less calories and burn more.
In the research on taranablant people taking 12 milligrams of the drug consumed ______ percent fewer calories than those taking a placebo.A) 11 B) 48 C) 31 D) 27
What negative side effects were noted? circle all that applyA) inability to operate motor vehicles B) irritability C) redness of the eyes D) gastrointestinal upset, nausea
According to Grounds for Change, how many migratory bird species utilize shade grown coffee plantings as a place to live? A) 75 B) 45 C) 150 D) 120
for starters, in this article on performance enhancing brain drugs, the author suggests that it is only cheating, and therefore should be regulated, in what situation?
Organized competition or formal testing of abilities
"Personal achievements impersonally achieved are not truly the achievements of persons," said the report "Beyond Therapy" by the US President's Council on ____________, chaired at the time by ethicist Leon Kass.
Studies on healthy volunteers have shown the cognitive effects of enhancing drugs to be ______, but sufficient to be considered helpful.
In this article, how is the drug delivered to the patients? A) injection B) smoking C) topical patch D) nasal spray
The treatment is "a totally new route for increasing arousal, and the new study shows it to be relatively benign," said Jerome Siegel, "It reduces sleepiness without causing ____________."
You should be able to associate the drug Orexin A is an aid to prevent what?
Effects of sleepiness.
Does the drug have any notable effect on people who are already alert?
The drug Modafinil (Provogil, or Alertec in Canada) activates what?
neurons that respond to Orexin A
anerobic fermentation =
Sugar + yeast (w/o O2) =
2(ethanol) + 2 (CO2)
The concentration of sugar we start with determines...
the concentration of alcohol we get
As a drug, ethanol is a...
Fermented fruit juice (up to 15% alcohol)
Grape juice can reach 20% sugar when grown in what kind of climate?
Mead = fermented...
In Africa, palm wine is made from sweet sap of...
This enxyme in saliva converts starch to sugar. Add water and yeast and you can have alcohol.
Fermented malt sugars (and grains)
Germinated roasted barley =
Honey malt = what type of roasting?
Light roasting. Chocolate Malt is high temp roasting.
Rice wine in Asia...
Lactose sugar to alcohol...
Distilling wine or beer concentrates the alcohol, to greater than 17%
What is malt liquor really?
More potent beer!
Ice distilling is really...
ice fractionation. As ice crystals grow, remove them. Leaves behind more concentrated alcohol.
Liquors contain an alcohol content up to...
Distilled wines =
Fortified wines =
Brandies with added flavorings, syrups usually
What drink can have potatoes as a starch source?
What is an advantage of distillation?
You can start with really low quality grain
Alocohol extraction of herbs, including wormwood and anise
Artemisia absinthium =
This developed a reputation of being more than just alcohol. Could have visions. People such as Hemingway, Van Goh and Oscar Wilde
Absinthe was said to cause...
Epilepsy and tuberculosis
Alcohol that has beginnings with molasses and the sugar trade.
What gives us tequila?
The percent of alcohol times 2
In 1000 BC, Homer speaks of this natural mineral, mined from soil, as a use to drive away pests.
In the early middle ages, this was used to control covered smut in wheat.
Soaking seeds in what meant that the smut would be free of disease?
Copper kettle. But copper from the kettle gets into the water.
The grape species in Europe...
Most commonly grown species of grape in the Americas...
These people made wine from grapes at least 5,000 years ago.
The Roman god of wine and parties.
Who kept the skill of winemaking alive through the Dark Ages?
Monks in Catholic monasteries
Recognized as the premier wine producers in Europe.
A symbol of the French identity.
Deep red, blue, black grapes make a...
dark red wine
Can you make white wine from red or black grapes?
Yes, every grape has white juice on the inside.
How can farmers grow seedless grapes, like the ones you buy at the store?
They start with a mutant that doesn't produce seeds, and clone it.
Vitis labrusca is good for what?
Jams and jellies, not wine.
A new disease that appeared in the French vineyards in 1848. Results from infections of leaves by a fungal pathogen.
What helped cure powdery mildew?
What was a solution to the powdery mildew problem?
Cross Vitis labrusca with Vitis vinifera, to make hybrids
A new malady in the vineyards in the 1860s, causing leaves to shrivel and damage done to the roots.
Dry leaf disease.
The root feeding aphid that was causing dry leaf disease...
Where did the aphid causing dry leaf disease come from?
North America. North American plants were resistant.
What was the solution to dry leaf disease?
Grafting the roots of American grapes onto the stems of French-Hybrid grapes
Another pathogen in European vineyards, this time in 1878. Produces masses of spores and fluffy mycelia whenever the weather id damp.
Discovers the concoction that kills the fungus, Bordeaux mixture.
Bordeaux mixture is now...
one of the most widely used fungicides today!
What did Europe turn to while France was facing these difficulties with wine?
Bourbon, whiskey, scotch, gin and vodka.
After the 1849 Gold Rush, California turns to...
Did the grape diseases play a part in the French Revolution?
Rauwolfia serpentina =
Snakeroot contains _________, a chemical that reduces affect of adrenaline.
Reserpine becomes the first widely used sedative in ________ _________ practice for the treatment of mental illness.
Reserpines in such great demand that plant was nearly.....
Harvested to extinction
Patients being treated for mental illness with reserpine showed...
Decrease in blood pressure
Today, what is reserpine mostly used for?
Heart medication for hypertension
These were once widely accepted as useful drugs for mental illness.
Sedative barbituates and stimulant amphetamines
Name a few drugs once approved in "Psychiatry"
Opium, cocaine, reserpine and LSD, amphetamines and barbituates
Today, there is controversy about which psychiatric drugs?
Ritalin and prozac
Studies suggest that the popular antidepressents are no more effective than what?
Over what percent of Americans drink at least one cup of coffee a day?
Coffee is second only to what in the global commodities market and is known as "Black gold"
Acts as an insencticide in plants. Quite a few plants contain it.
What other plants contain caffeine?
Tea, Yerba mate, Cola nitida, chocolate, Guarana
Caffeine gives us what?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline
What produces adrenaline in the body?
What produces noradrenaline?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline together give us what response?
Fight or flight
Dilates some blood vessels, increases blood flow to muscles. Closes blood vessels to skin and head, causes loss of appetite. Increases urination
Increases blood pressure, circulates the glucose, the oxygen.
Is adrenaline available as an over the counter drug?
What is prescription epinephrine, injectable adrenaline, used for?
Caffeine does not cause a dramatic rise in blood glucose, so we...
Withdrawal symptoms of caffeine include...
headache, irritability, tiredness
How many cups of espresso would you have to drink in a short time in order to die?
The coffee fruit are?
Why must coffee cherries be handpicked?
Not all of them ripen at once.
Where is coffee native to?
Who discovers coffee around 1500 AD and begin to roast seeds and brew a drink?
In the 1600s, only what group of people produce coffee?
Arabs could receive the death penalty for selling what to Europeans?
Live, not roasted, coffee seeds.
An Indian travels where and brigns home coffee seeds to begin plantationsi n India?
After India, who begins to grow coffee plantations in their colonies?
The first European nation to produce coffee is the Dutch. Tremendous wealth for...
The Dutch East India Co.
What replaces alcohol as a social drink in Europe?
A famous British insurance company that started out as a coffee shop on the docks.
In the 1840s, there is a what in Europe?
Black Gold Rush! (Coffee)
What appears in coffee in 1870?
When coffee rust kills a plant, the leaves die and new healthy leaves grow back. These don't last though. Why?
Rust from nearby plants gets on them, infecting the plant all over again.
In 1875, what area is in ruins and switches from coffee to tea and rubber because of rust.
Because of rust, what becomes the world's center for coffee plantations?
What are the three top countries in terms of coffee production today?
Brazil, Columbia and Vietnam
The US buys what percent of world coffee production?
Shade grown coffee provides what?
Habitat for wildlife
In the 1970s, big companies began growing coffee in the sun with many insecticides and chemicals, killing...
habitat for wildlife
What is a limitation of shade grown coffee?
Yields are low
Many US what migrate to South America and use environments of shade grown coffee to live?
Certifies growers as Eco-OK is they meet the criteria.
Markets coffee grown only by small farmers, using a direct marketing approach
What is the biggest threat to the world's coffee farmers?
Producers of energy drinks
What else can be fair trade?
Tea, chocolate, bananas.
This is wrapped in leafs of betel vine and chewed with a little lime.
A mixed stimulant that becomes addictive and causes diseases of the mouth (red mouth)
Sell Betel nuts on the street side in glass booths.
Betel nut beauties
Celastrus edulis =
A nerve stimulant, chewed fresh leaves. Causes arousal, excitation, eurphoria
Reputation to reduce libido. The anti-aphrodisiac
Piper methysticum =
A mild sedative, used in Polynesia as a religious ritual. Preparation requires grating and soaking roots in water to prepare a tea.
In the US, this is a herbal supplement to ease anxiety, lower stress, calm the agitated
Over 25 reported causes of liver damage related to this plants use...
Aminita muscaria =
a poisonous mushroom
Muscarine is a mimic of what?
A central nervous system stimulant that leads to spastic paralysis
Eating mushrooms is said to induce...
Twitching, excitement, euphoria, invicible feels, impulse for violence, self mutilation.
This passes through the body quickly. Must drink urine for full effect.
Who was likely tripping on muscarine when they invaded?
A neurotransmitter in pain perception pathway. Important in transmitting the perception of chronic pain.
What parts of your body does the brain's pain map miss?
Brain and heart
Heat causes special what to open, starting impulse along nerve which the brain perceives as heat.
A chemical that mimics the action of substance P, causes the sensation of pain we interpret as heat.
The location of capsaicin, in hot peppers and sweet bell peppers
Where, other than food, can capsaicin be?
Used as a topical treatment for arthritis.
Mentha arvenis =
Menthol. Isolated from peppermint.
How does information travel in an animal nerve cell?
From dendrite to cell body, from cell body out an axon.
How fast does a wave travel?
Chrysanthemum cinerafiifolium =
Pyrethrum contains what?
Randomly opens portals, starts random, chatoic impulses and muscle spasms.
Pyrethrin is used as a what?
Toxic insect spray
This acts in the same was as pyrethrins, opens channels of insects. Spasms, convulsion and death.
Mimics AC, binds to the receptors, opens them.
Acetylcholine receptors come in two flavors...
Nicotinic and muscarinic
The world's fastest enzyme...
The most widely used garden insecticide
What is the antidote to nerve gas attacks that US soldiers have at the ready?
What acts like atropine?
Causes food poisoning
What year was cocaine outlawed?
Opium, morphine and heroin are no longer available over the counter.
Marijuana tax act
Formal system of identifying drugs sold only under prescription implemented withe patent protection
Salvia banned in Ohio
Name two important uses of the sal resistant hemp fiber, in the era of wooden ships
Hemp rope, hemp sails
What fabric derives its name from Cannabis sativa?
What famous document was written on hemp paper?
Declaration of Independence
Henry Ford used hemp fiber to build what?
The body of a car
Over 4,000 years ago, the father of _____ medicine wrote about medical uses of marijuana.
What did Popular Mechanics say about hemp in the mid 1930s?
IT was poised ot become the new billion dollar crop
In the US, who were the first users of marijuana, generally speaking?
How did Reefer Madness depict the behavior of marijuana users
In the Smithsonian "Musuem of Fibers and Fabrics," what does it say about the hemp industry?