Unit 6 Bio

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  1. Who proved that DNA is the genetic code using bacteriophages?
    Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
  2. Image Upload 1
    Who took this photo using x-ray diffraction, and what did it show?
    Rosalind Franklin, and it showed that DNA is in the shape of a double helix.
  3. Who built the double helix model?
    James Watson and Francis Crick
  4. How did Frederick Griffith show that DNA transformation occurs in bacteria?
    He injected mice with lots of live and dead pnemonia bacteria. When the dead viral bacteria combined with the live nonviral bacteria, it showed that their DNA could be combined to then kill the mice.
  5. Which scientist proved that nitrogen bases are in equal proportions?
    Erwin Chargaff
  6. What is each side of the DNA 'ladder' made of?
    Sugar and phosphate
  7. What is the basic unit of a nucleic acid?
    A nucleotide
  8. Which rule states that A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C?
    Chargaff's Rule
  9. What bond holds base pairs together?
    Hydrogen bonds
  10. What bond holds the 'ladder' together?
    Covalent bonds
  11. What is a nucleotide made of?
    A 5 carbon sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate.
  12. What is the 5 carbon sugar of DNA?
  13. What enzyme unzips the DNA during replication?
  14. What enzyme pairs up complementary nucleotides to DNA during replication?
    DNA polymerase
  15. What does is mean that daughter DNA strands are semi-conservative?
    The 2 daughter DNA strands have one side of origional DNA and one side that is made of nucleotides that the enzyme paired to it.
  16. During transcription, what does the DNA nucleotide A pair to?
  17. What type of RNA brings the DNA code to the ribosomes?
  18. What type of RNA has groups of three bases called codons?
  19. What type of RNA twists into a T shape with three bases facing down?
  20. What type of RNA carries and amino acid on its top?
  21. What kind of RNA finds amino acids from the cytoplasm?
  22. What is it called when RNA copies the order of bases from DNA?

    a. transcription
    b. translation
    a. transcription
  23. What is it called when the codons from mRNA are made into proteins?

    a. transcription
    b. translation
    b. translation
  24. What type of RNA combines with proteins to form the ribosomes?
  25. Line up the order of transcription correctly.

    1. RNA polymerase attaches complementary polymerase to strand I.
    2. Double helix comes back together
    3. Double helix unzips
    4. mRNA disattaches and travels out to the ribosome
    5. Chromosomes unwind
    5, 3, 1, 4, 2
  26. Line up the order of translation correctly.
    1. Another tRNA brings another amino acid and a chain of amino acids begins to form
    2. mRNA travels from the nucleus to the ribosome
    3. A stop codon appears in the mRNA, marking the end of the protein.
    4. tRNA picks up amino acids from the cytoplasm and brings them to the anticodon.
    5. The polypeptide is released from the ribosome.
    6. The tRNA anticodon attaches to the mRNA codon and releases the amino acid.
    2, 4, 6, 1, 3, 5
  27. What kind of mutation is this? Is it a frameshift or point mutation?

    1 2 3 4 5 5 6
    Insertion- it is a frameshift mutation
  28. What kind of mutation is this? Is it a frameshift or point mutation?

    1 3 2 4 5 6
    Inversion- it is a point mutation
  29. What kind of mutation is this? Is it a frameshift or point mutation?

    1 3 4 5 6
    Deletion- it is a frameshift mutation
  30. What kind of mutation is this? Is it a frameshift or point mutation?

    1 1 3 4 5 6
    Substitution- It is a point mutation
  31. What do you call a natural or man made agent which can change the structure or sequence of DNA?
    A Mutagen
  32. True or False:

    Mutations can only be passed down to offspring if they occur in the gametes.
  33. What is a polypeptide?

    a. a chain of sugars
    b. a chain of proteins
    c. a chain of amino acids
    d. a chain of paper clips
    c. A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids that forms all of or part of a protein.
  34. What is protein syntheis?
    The combined processes of transcription and translation in order to make proteins.
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Unit 6 Bio
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