Ch. 35

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Ch. 35
2012-03-12 19:35:07

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  1. plasticity
    an organism's ability to alter or mold itself in response to local environmental conditions
  2. morphology
    external form of an organism
  3. tissues
    group of cells with a common structure & function
  4. organs
    several tissues that carry out specific functions
  5. root system for w____ & m____
    water & minerals
  6. shoot system of s___, f___, & l____
    stems, flowers, & leaves
  7. taproot system
    anchor the plant and tap deep water sources

    produces smaller lateral roots
  8. fibrous root system (monocots)
    mat of threadlike roots that spread out below the soil surface
  9. adventitious root
    develops from the base of the stem or other parts of the plants that are above ground
  10. stem
    alternating system of nodes & internodes
  11. node
    points at which leaves are attached
  12. internodes
    stem segment b/t nodes
  13. terminal bud
    bud at the apex (tip) of the shoot that has developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
  14. axillery bud
    bud that has potential to form a lateral shoot (branch) that is located in the angle b/t the leaf & the stem
  15. apical dominance
    inhibition of growth of axillary buds by the presence of the terminal bud - plants grow taller & obtain light
  16. veins
    vascular tissue of leaves
  17. blade and stalk (petiole) joins the l___ to the n___ of a stem
    leaf to the node
  18. tissue system
    one or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant
  19. epidermis
    single layer of tightly packed cells
  20. cuticle
    prevents dessication
  21. periderm
    replaces the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
  22. xylem & phloem
    the two vascular tissues
  23. stele
    vascular tissue of a root
  24. vascular cylinder
    in angiosperms, the stele of the root is in the form of
  25. vascular bundles
    in stems and leaves, the stele is divided into
  26. pith
    ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue
  27. cortex
    ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue
  28. protoplast
    contents of the cell exclusive of a cell wall
  29. parenchyma cells (typical cells)
    • least specialized, primary walls but lack secondary.
    • large central vacuole
  30. collenchyma cells
    • thick & uneven primary walls
    • support young parts of plant w/o restraining growth
    • lack secondary walls and lignin
  31. sclerenchyma cells
    • rigid cells that have thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin
    • found in regions not growing
    • fxn maturity, may be dead
  32. fibers
    long, slender, tapered, occur in bundles
  33. sclereids
    short, irregular, give hardness to nutshells
  34. water-conducting cells of xylem: tracheids and vessel elements
    • dead at fxn maturity
    • produce secondary cell walls b4 protoplast dies
    • leaves space where water can flow
  35. pits
    gaps in the secondary walls and allow for water exchange b/t cells
  36. tracheids
    long, thing cells with tapered ends that fxn in both support & transport
  37. vessel-elements
    • wide, short, thin-walled and not as tapered
    • line up end to end forming xylem vessels
  38. xylem vessels
    long micropipes
  39. food-conducting cells of phloem: sieve-tube members
    living at fxn maturity
    lack nuceli
    arranged end to end with sieve plates b/t them
  40. sieve plates
    porous walls
  41. companion cell
    connects to the sieve-tube by plasmodesmata
  42. indeterminate growth
    plants growing as long as they live
  43. determinate growth
    stop growing after reaching a certain size
  44. annuals
    plants that complete their life cycle (germinating → flowing → seed production → death) in one year or less
  45. biennials
    life span ~2yrs, common in plants in winter & summer areas
  46. perennials
    plants that live many years (trees)
  47. meristems
    perpetually embryonic tissues
  48. apical meristems
    located @ the tip of roots and in buds of shoots supply cells for the plant to grow in length
  49. primary growth
    plant grow in length
  50. lateral meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium)
    cylinders of dividing cells extending along the length of roots and shoots
  51. secondary growth
    progressive thickening of the roots and shoots
  52. initials
    cells that remain in the meristems that act as sources of new cells
  53. derivatives
    new cells that move out of the meristems
  54. primary plant body
    parts of the root & shoot systems produced by apical meristems
  55. primary meristems
    three concentric cylinders of dividing cells
  56. root cap
    protects the apical meristem as root pushes through soil during primary growth
  57. protoderm
    produces dermal tissue
  58. procambrium
    produces vascular tissue
  59. ground meristem
    produces ground tissue
  60. epidermis
    single layer of cells covering the root - arises from protoderm
  61. stele
    vascular bundle where both xylem and phloem develop - procambrium
  62. pith
    central core of parenchyma cells in the stele of monocot - procambrium
  63. cortex
    region of the root b/t the vascular cylinder and epidermis - ground meristerm
  64. endodermis
    innermost layer of the cortext
  65. pericycle
    outermost layer of the vascular cylinder; lateral roots begin to form
  66. leaf primordia
    finger-like projections along the flanks of apical meristerms
  67. stomata
    allows for gas exchange b/t air & photosynthetic cells
  68. transpiration
    water loss by evaporation
  69. mesophyll
    consists of parenchyma cells for photosynthesis
  70. palisade mesophyll
    one+ layers of elongated cells on the upper part of the leaf & spongy mesophyll
  71. spongy mesophyll
    loosely arranged cells found below paliside mesophyll
  72. leaf traces
    connections from vascular bundles in the stem to the leaves
  73. bundle sheath
    each vein is enclosed
  74. secondary plant body
    tissues produced by vascular cambium, and cork cambium
  75. fusiform initials
    produce elongated cells such as tracheids, vessel elements, fibers of xylem, sieve-tube members, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers of the phloem, and ray initials
  76. ray initials
    shorter cells perpendicular to the stem or root axis that produce rays of parenchyma cells
  77. heartwood
    older layers of wood
  78. sapwood
    outside layers of wood
  79. phelloderm
    thin layer of parenchyma cells that forms to the interior of the cork cambium
  80. suberin
    waxy material that forms a protective shield outside the plant
  81. bark
    all tissues outside of the vascular cambium
  82. lenticels
    more space b/t cork cells for gas exchange