OB test #1

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  1. research questions are formed from information retrieved from this; starting part
    Descriptive stats
  2. answers specific questions & generates theories to explain relationships
    inferential stats
  3. # of live births per 1000 ppl
    birth rate
  4. # of deaths of infants under 1 year per 1000 live births
    infant mortality
  5. # of deaths of infants less than 28 days of age per 1000 births
    neonatal mortality
  6. death in utero at 20 weeks or more gestations
    fetal deaths
  7. includes both neonatal and fetal deaths per 1000 live births
    perinatal mortality
  8. # of deaths r/t pregnancy per 100,000 live births
    maternal mortality
  9. ovum are viable up to ___ hours, sperm up to ___ hours
    24, 72
  10. Implantation occurs _ to _ days after fertilization
  11. This cycle changes; usually day 1-14
    follicular phase
  12. fixed; begins when ovulation occurs
    luteal phase
  13. released by anterior pituitary; produces changes in the ovaries
    FSH & LH
  14. responsible for the maturation of ovarian follicle during follicular phase
  15. mature follicle ruptures under the ___ hormone
  16. If fertilization takes place, the fertilized egg secretes ___
    HCG hormone which maintains the corpus luteum
  17. first phase of cycle; endometrium sheds
    Menstrual cycle
  18. 2nd phase, 7 to 14 days, endometrium thickens in response to estrogen; cervical mucus becomes thin, clear, watery, and more alkaline; ferning pattern
    Proliferative phase
  19. follows ovulations; endometrium increases in vascularity under influence of progesterone
    Secretory phase
  20. occurs only if fertilization does not take place; decrease in estrogen/progesterone, increase in FSH and LH, cycle starts over
    ischemic phase
  21. first two weeks (Fetal development); teratogen "all or nothing"
  22. 3 to 8 weeks of fetal development; exposure to teratogen will cause serious birth defects; most vulnerable
  23. exposure during this period will cause brain damage/cognitivie deficiencies and immaturity of CNS
    fetal period
  24. amniotic fluid is ____, and the test strip will turn ___
    alkaline; blue
  25. Cushions, protects fetus; allows for fetal movement; maintains body temp of fetus;
    amniotic fluid
  26. outer membrane; becomes vascularized and forms the fetal part of the placenta
  27. fetal respiration; provides for exchange of nutrients and wastes; develops by 3rd month
  28. the placenta secretes:
    hCG; hPL, estrogen, progesterone
  29. Week 4 growth
    Gi tract starts to develop; heart is developing, beating, and circulating blood; neural tube closes; eyes, nose starts to form; arms/leg buds are present
  30. Wk. 6-8
    Trachea is developed; liver produces blood cells; trunk is straighter; digits develop
  31. By week 8:
    all body organs are formed
  32. Week 12
    Eyelids are closed; tooth buds appear; fetal heart tones can be heard; genitals are differentiated; urine is produces; spontaneous movement occurs
  33. week 16
    lanugo starts; blood vessels; active movements; fetus makes sucking motions; swallows amniotic fluid; produces meconium; sex can be determined
  34. week 20
    subcutaneous brown fat appears; quickening is felt; fetal heartbeat heard with fetoscope
  35. Wk. 24
    eyes are structurally complete; Vernix Caseosa covers skin; alveoli are beginning to form
  36. Wk. 28
    testes begin to descend; lungs are structurally mature - surfactant is being produces
  37. WK. 32
    Rhythmic breathing movements; ability to partially control temp; bones are full developed but soft and flexible
  38. Week 36
    Increase in sub Q fat; lanugo begins to disappear
  39. Week 38
    Baby fills total uterus; lanugo has disappeared except in upper arms/shoulders; hair is now coarse and approximately 1 inch in lenght; fetus is flexed
  40. Factors that may influence fetus
    Quality of sperm/ovum; genetic code; adequacey of intrauterine environment; teratogens
  41. protects the cord vessels from stretching/pressure that could interrupt blood flow
    wharton's jelly
  42. cheese like protective covering that coats the baby in utero
  43. ______ are the source for amniotic fluid
    Fetal kidneys
  44. secreted in breech presentation or fetal distress
  45. insulin antagonist; allows G&D for the mother to provide fetus with nutrients including glucose/protein and induce lactation; peaks between 26-28 weeks, so mother is most predisposed to developing destation diabetes
  46. responsible for enlargement of breast and breastfeeding; most abundant hormone; produced by the fetus' adrenal glands; causes increased contractility of uterus
  47. plays greatest role in maintaining pregnancy; causes decreased contractility of uterus; provides nourishment for the conceptis
  48. if the neural tube does not close, it can cause____
    spina bifida
  49. The pt. needs to be educated on:
    hot tubs, substance abuse, nutrition, illness
  50. the blood passes the lungs through ___ and ____
    ductus arteriosus & foramen ovale
  51. Blood passes the liver through ____
    ductus venosus
  52. extra fatty deposits around the shoulders, back, and other places; keeps baby warm
    brown fat
  53. lasts 5-6 months after births; gets it last tri of pregnancy
    passive immunity
  54. the EDD is calculated by ___
    from the first day of client LMP
  55. Nagele's Rule formula
    first day of LMP, subract 3 months, add 7 days
  56. conception actually occurs about ___ days before the start of next period time
  57. becomes congested with blood due to estrogen during pregnancy; mucous plug is formed
  58. small bright elevations on face, neck, arms
    vascular spider nevi
  59. mask of pregnancy
    chlosasma; melasma
  60. BV increases 40-50% and peaks at ___ weeks
    28-32 weeks
  61. heart rate increases ____ beats/min
  62. heart is displace to the ___ and may appear ___
    left; enlarged
  63. enlarging uterus puts pressure on vena cava, interferes with blood return to hear; causes dizziness, pallor, clamminess, lowered BP; the client needs to lie on left side or wedge under right hip
    supine hypotensive syndrome
  64. HCT levels of ___ are considered normal
    32-44; 38 to 47 are not normal
  65. ____, ____, and ____ all increase
    leukocytes, fibrin, fibrinogen/clotting factors
  66. the fetal heartbeat can be head at ___
    17-20 weeks with fetoscope, 10-12 weeks with doppler device
  67. fetal movement can be felt __
    16-20 weeks
  68. Rubin's tasks of the mother
    ensure safe passage; seeks acceptance of baby by others; seeks commitment/acceptance of self as mother; learns to give on behalf of child
  69. pregnancy, includes present
  70. birth after 20 weeks
  71. completion of 37 weeks gestation
  72. born after 10 weeks but before 37 weeks
  73. can see gestational sac ___ to ___ weeks, fetal heart ___ to ____ weeks, and breathing at ___ weeks
    5-6, 6-8, 11
  74. done at 8-12 weeks to test for genetic defects
    chorionic villus sampling
  75. done at 14 weeks to check genetic disorders (need empty bladder)
  76. test for ROM and presencse of amnitoic fluid from external OS of vagina; put on slide
    fern test
  77. amniotic fluid has a pH of ___, turns paper ___, and is the ___ test
    7.0-7.5; blue; nitrazine
  78. screen at 28 weeks; 1 hr gtt and 3 hr gtt
    gestational diabetes
  79. can cause serious problems for newbown; will screen at 35-37 weeks vaginal swabs
    group B strep
  80. done on RH negative women
    indirect coombs test
  81. conception is about ___ weeks less than gestational age
    2 weeks
  82. excessive salvation
  83. increase in RBC and plasma volume
    physiologic anemia (false anemia)
  84. opening between 2 atria
    foramen ovale
  85. the purpose of the ductus arteriosus is to:
    allow blood flow to bypass the lungs since the fetus is being oxygenated through blood from the placenta
  86. the ductus venosus allows blood to:
    bypass the liver
  87. stimulates corpus luteum to produce progesterone and esstrogen until placenta takes over
  88. stimulates uterine growth and increases blood supply
  89. maintains endometrial layer for implantation, prevents spontaneous abortion
  90. inhibits uterine activity, softens connective tissue in cervix
  91. at 12 weeks, the fundus should be about ____
    right above the symphysis pubis bone
  92. at 16 weeks, the fundus should be:
    midway b/w the symphysis pubis & umbilicus
  93. at 20 weeks, the fundus should be:
    at umbilicus
  94. around 36/38 weeks, the fetus:
    drops into pelvic cavity
  95. when in true labor, the cervix becomes:
  96. Chadwick's sign is ___ and is due to ____
    bluish discoloration; increase in estrogen and blood flow
  97. the softening of the uterus is called ___ and occurs around _____
    Hagar sign; 6 weeks
  98. ability of uterus to flex around the cervix
    MacDonald's sign
  99. softening of the cervix is called
    Goodall's sign
  100. Colostrum begins being produced around ____
    12 weeks
  101. the ureters become dilated under the effect of ____, which can cause urinary stasis
  102. Decreased peristalsis can lead to:
    heartburn, indigestions, constipation, nausea, vomiting
  103. Morning sickness is attributed to _____
  104. Encourage low fat diets and consumption of crackers to help _____ to subside
  105. Castor oil can cause uterine irritability and can cause a woman to:
    go into pre-term labor; castor oil also decreases absorption of other nutrients that are necessary for fetal growth and development
  106. oxygen needs ____, due to the needs of fetus
  107. pregnant women breathe more _______, but RR ____
    remain the same
  108. ______ relaxes the airways, causes less resistance, and allows woman to effectively breathe deeper
  109. Breathing changes from ____ to _____
    abdominal to thoracic
  110. A heart murmur may be heard around ____ weeks and until birth; it peaks about ____ to ____ weeks
    20; 30 to 32
  111. The cardiac output increases by ___ to ____ % and peaks at ___ weeks
    30-50, 30-32 weeks
  112. Pregnancy impedes blood flow to lower extremities, causing ___ and ____
    varicose veins and dependent edema
  113. tell pregnant women to sleep on their ____ in order for the blood to perfuse the fetus
  114. edema of hands and face may indicate ____
    pregnancy induced hypertension
  115. Encourage women to avoid:
    crossing her legs, wearing tight restricting clothing, and avoid sitting/standing for long periods of time
  116. RBCs and plasma levels _____
  117. hematocrit levels decrease to about _____
    32-44 %
  118. plasma level increases more than RBCs, which causes ______
    false anemia
  119. if hematocrit drops below _____, than true iron deficiency anemia probably exists
  120. Weight gain during pregnancy should be around ____ to ___ lbs;
  121. pregnant women should visit their doctor every ___ weeks until 28 weeks, every ___ weeks until 36 weeks, and every week until birth
  122. 1st tri, the woman should gain about 3.5 to 5 pounds a week; after that, about _____
    a pound a week
  123. ____ pelvis is most desirable for birthing
  124. What tests are performed for the 1st prenatal visit?
    CBC, rH factor, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit
  125. If a mother is rH negative, immunoglobulins will be administered at beginning of week
  126. ____ is administered to a rH negative mother; if she has not been previosuly sensitized, she cannot become sensitized until the birth of the first baby
  127. _____ titer will be drawn, and the goal is for the result to be ____
    Rubella, positive
  128. ______ is seen in the urine if a mother becomes pre-eclamptic
  129. ____ screens for alpha fetal protein to test for neural tube defects
  130. measures HCG, unconjugated estriol; conducted between 15-20 weeks; possiblity of Down's sndrome or neural tube defects
  131. _____ can be aspirated around 8-12 weeks for the purpose of genetic testing; risks are higher than the risks of amniocentesis
    Chrionic villi
  132. Women should be encouraged to keep ____ at 28 weeks
    "Kick Counts"
  133. The baby should move about ___ times in the first 30 minutes
  134. fluid is taken from os; if it turns blue, then the membranes are ruptures; ok if it is around or after 37 weeks
  135. glucose tolerance test is conducted between ___ and ____ weeks gestation
  136. Women are tested for ______ very late in pregnancy (35-36 weeks)
    Group B strep
  137. Daily caloric intake should increase by _____ calories per day
  138. at least _ servings per day of folic acid should be taken
  139. Excessive vitamin __ can cause coagulation problems
  140. ___, ____, and ___ are the nutritional supplements recommended during pregnancy
    Vitamin B, folic acid, iron
  141. a pregnant adolescent needs at least ___ mg of calcium per day
  142. Cocaine causes _____
  143. ___ can be used to treat withdrawal symptoms during pregnancy
  144. antagonist to insulin; allows glucose to get to fetus, but also causes pancreas to produce more insuli to meet the body's need
  145. hemoglobin for pregnant women should not be lower than ____
  146. most oxygenated; carries oxygenated blood to fetus
    umbilical vein
  147. mask of pregnancy
  148. if blood sugar is above ___ on the 1 hour test, than the 3 hour test needs to be performed
  149. causes of bleeding in the first half of pregnancy include:
    ectopic pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease, and spontaneous abortion
  150. causes of bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy include:
    placenta previa and abruption placenta
  151. bleeding/cramping are present; cervix is still closed; requires bed rest
    threatened abortion
  152. cervix has dilated, causing loss of fetus
    imminent abortion
  153. all products of conception are lost
    complete abortion
  154. retain some products of conception, requires D&C
    incomplete abortion
  155. retention of the products of conception after fetal death up to 12 weeks a D&C is performed and after 12 weeks oxytocin is administered to induce labor
    missed abortion
  156. abdnormal development of placenta; no fetal tissue
    hydatiform mole
  157. excessive vomiting during pregnancy
    hyperemesis gravidarum
  158. 140/90 or greater
    mild preeclampsia
  159. 180/110
    severe preeclampsia
  160. administer _____ to prevent seizures in PIH
    magnesium sulfate
  161. respiration less than 12, absence of deep tendon reflexes, urinary output of less than 30, coonfusion, lethargy, drooling, hypotension, difficulty swallowing are signs of ___
    magnesium sulfate toxicity
  162. __________ is the antidote for magnesium sulfate and should be given IV
  163. RUQ pain, N/v, high morbidity, and mortality rate, elevated liver enzymes
    HELLP (hemolysis elevated liver (enzymes) low platelets
  164. looking for blood b/w rectum and uterus which indicates bleeding from fallopian tube
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OB test #1
2012-03-19 23:53:03

OB test #1
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