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  1. Perspective Taking
    The ability to assume other peoples perspectives and understand their thoughts and feelings
  2. Self-Esteem
    The global evaluative dimensions of the self. Self-esteem is also referred to as self-worth or self-image
  3. Self-Concept
    Domain-specific evaluations of the self
  4. Self-Efficacy
    The belief that once can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
  5. Pre-conventional Reasoning
    The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individuals moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment
  6. Heteronomous Morality
    Kohlbergs first stage of preconventional reasoning in which moral thinking is tied to punishment
  7. Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
    Kohlberg's second stage of preconventional reasoning. At this stage, individuals pursue their own interest but also let others do the same
  8. Concentional Reasoning
    The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society
  9. Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity
    Kohlberg's third stage of moral developement. At this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments
  10. Social Systems Morality
    The fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice and duty
  11. Postconventional Reasoning
    The highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral developement. At this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code.
  12. Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights
    The fifth Kohlberg stage. At this stage, individuals reason that calues, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
  13. Universal Ethical Principles
    The sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
  14. Justice Perspective
    A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
  15. Care Perspective
    The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
  16. Social Conventional Reasoning
    Thoughts about social consensus and convention, in contrast to moral reasoning, which stresses ethical issues
  17. Gender Stereotypes
    Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
  18. Androgyny
    Presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual
  19. Popular Children
    Children who are frequently niminated as a best friend and are rerely disliked by their peers
  20. Average Children
    Children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from peers
  21. Neglected Children
    Chidlren who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
  22. Rejected Children
    Children who are infrquently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
  23. Controversial Children
    Children who are frequently nominated both as a best friend and as being disliked
  24. Intimacy in Frienships
    Self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts
  25. Contructivist Approach
    A learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively contstructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
  26. Direct Intruction Approach
    A structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative effect to a minimum
  27. Mindset
    The cognitive view, either fixed or growth, that individuals develop for themselves
Card Set
Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood
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