pharm chpt 5 & 6.txt

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pamlangley02
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141335
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pharm chpt 5 & 6.txt
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2012-03-13 10:56:29
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Pharm Chpt
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pharm Chpt 5 & 6
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  1. a
    before
  2. ac
    before meals
  3. ad lib
    as desired
  4. AM, am
    morning
  5. amp
    ampule
  6. bid
    twice a day
  7. -

    c
    with
  8. cap
    capsule
  9. Cl
    chloride
  10. cm
    centimeter
  11. DC,D/C
    discontinue
  12. DS
    double strength
  13. DW
    distilled water
  14. D5W
    dextrose 5% in water
  15. EC
    enteric coated
  16. elix
    elixir
  17. ER
    extended release
  18. Fe
    iron
  19. fl
    fluid
  20. gr
    grain
  21. Gm, g
    gram
  22. gtt
    drop
  23. h,hr
    hour
  24. IM
    intramuscular
  25. IV
    intravenous
  26. IVPB
    intravenous piggyback
  27. K
    potassium
  28. KCL
    potassium chloride
  29. kg, Kilo
    kilogram
  30. KVO
    keep vein open
  31. L
    liter
  32. LA
    long acting
  33. LR
    Lactated Ringer's
  34. lb
    pound
  35. mEq
    milliequivalent
  36. mcg
    microgram
  37. mg
    milligram
  38. ml,mL
    milliliter (equivalent to cc)
  39. mm
    millimeter
  40. Na
    sodium
  41. NaCl
    sodium chloride
  42. NEB
    nebulizer
  43. NG
    nasogastric
  44. noc
    night
  45. NPO, npo
    nothing by mouth
  46. NS, N/S
    normal saline (sodium chloride, 0.9%)
  47. oint
    ointment
  48. OTC
    over the counter
  49. oz
    ounce
  50. p
    after
  51. pc
    after meals
  52. PCA
    patient controlled analgesia
  53. PM, pm
    afternoon
  54. po, PO
    by mouth, orally
  55. PRN, prn
    whenever necessary
  56. pt
    pint, patient
  57. qh
    every hour
  58. q2h
    every 2 hours
  59. q3h
    every 3 hours
  60. q4h
    every 4 hours
  61. qid
    four times a day
  62. QNS
    quantity not sufficient
  63. qs
    quantity sufficent
  64. qt
    quart
  65. R, pr
    rectal, per rectum
  66. RL, R/L
    Ringer's Lactate
  67. -

    s
    without
  68. SL
    sublingual
  69. sol
    solution
  70. SR
    sustained release
  71. stat
    immediately and once only
  72. subcu
    subcutaneous
  73. supp
    suppository
  74. tab
    tablet
  75. tbsp, T, tbs
    tablespoon
  76. tsp, t
    teaspoon
  77. tid
    three times daily
  78. TO
    telephone order
  79. U, u
    unit
  80. vag
    vaginal
  81. Vit
    vitamin
  82. VO
    verbal order
  83. ISMP
    Institute for Safe Medication Practice
  84. monitors medication administration and identifies practices that have contributed to medication errors
    ISMP
  85. JCAHO
    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
  86. has approved a list of dangerous abbreviations that have been prohibited effective 1/1/04
    JCAHO
  87. medication orders contain 6 parts
    • 1. date
    • 2. patient's name
    • 3. Medication name
    • 4. dosage or amount of medication
    • 5. route or manner of administration (if no route is specified, the oral route is usually the appropriate one)
    • 6. Time to be administered, or frequency
  88. when taking a telephone order, always obtain:
    the name of the person calling in the order & write the name of that person & the time the call was made next to the medication ordered
  89. all phone orders must be followed by:
    a read back statement
  90. it's the responsibility of the health care practitioner to check:
    medication order for completeness by noting the 6 items
  91. the physician must sign all verbal and telephone orders within:
    24 hours
  92. the prescription blank contains 2 additional items:
    physcian's Drug Enforcement Administration registration # if it's controlled substance & the # of times that the prescription can be refilled
  93. on a prescription blank, check for:
    completeness, legibility & accuracy, including date, patient's name, medication name, dosage, router, frequency or time, # of refills and DEA # for controlled substances
  94. some states have passed legislation requiring:
    name of the medication to be legibly printed or typed & may require the quantity of the drug prescribed to be in both textual & numerical formats. the prescriber must also print his or her name under the signature
  95. example of legislation passed:
    Legible Prescription Law, which became effective in FL on 7/1/03
  96. original system of weights & measure for writing med orders
    apothecary system
  97. Is a pharmacist or druggist
    Apothecary
  98. the preferred system of measurement & is used at the present
    metric system
  99. the lease accurate system of measurement
    household system
  100. medication orders are concerned with only 2 types of measurement:
    • 1. measuring fluids, or liquid measure
    • 2. measuring solids, or solid weight
  101. includes the minim, fluid dram, fluid ounce, pint, quart and gallon - liquid
    • grain, dram, ounce & pound - solid
    • apothecary
  102. gr
    grain
  103. m, min
    minim
  104. dr
    dram
  105. a ___ is approx equivalent to 1 minim of water, but the type of solution may cause variation
    drop
  106. invented by the French in the late 18th century & is the international standard for weights & measures
    metric system
  107. includes liter and the milliliter, which is approx equivalent to the cubic cm-liquid
    • gram & the milligram - solid
    • metric
  108. equipment most commonly used for measuring meds include:
    medicine cup & various syringes calibrated in millilters and/or minims
  109. 5 mL (metric converted to household)
    1 tsp
  110. 15 mL (metric converted to household)
    1 tbsp
  111. 30 mL (metric converted to household)
    2 tbsp
  112. 240 mL (metric converted to household)
    1 measuring cup (240 mL)
  113. 500 mL (metric converted to household)
    1 pt
  114. 1,000 mL (metric converted to household)
    1 qt
  115. 1g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    1,000 mg
  116. 0.6g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    600 mg
  117. 0.5g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    500 mg
  118. 0.3g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    300 mg
  119. 0.2g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    200 mg
  120. 0.1g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    100 mg
  121. 0.06g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    60 mg
  122. 0.05g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    50 mg
  123. 0.03g (metric-grams converted to metric-milligrams)
    30 mg
  124. 1 lb (pounds converted to kilograms)
    0.453592 kg
  125. 1 kg (kilograms converted to pounds)
    2.2 pounds (lb)
  126. to convert pounds to kilograms:
    divide # of pounds by 2.2
  127. be careful in calculating the weight in kg because:
    the slightest error, especially in pediatric doses could result in serious or fatal consequences
  128. many meds are dispensed by the pharmacist in:
    unit-dose form (which each individual dose of med is prepackaged in a seperate packet, vial or prefilled syringe)
  129. when the dosage ordered differs from the dosage on hand, the problem can be solved simply by completing 3 basic steps:
    • 1. check whether all measure are in the same system; convert if necessary
    • 2. write the problem in equation form using the appropriate formula & labeling all parts & complete the necessary calculations
    • 3. check the accuracy of your answer for reasonableness & have someone else verify your calculations
  130. basic calculation:
    • desired dose
    • ______________ X quantity of on-hand dose
    • on-hand dose
  131. cautions for the basic calculation method:
    • 1. label all parts of the formula
    • 2. use the same label for desired and on-hand doses
    • 3. use the same label for the quantity & the answer (the amount to be given)
    • 4. reduce fractions to lowest terms before dividing
    • 5. mulitply by the quantity after dividing
    • 6. take extra care with decimals
    • 7. convert fractions to decimals
    • 8. round off decimals to one decimal place after computations complete
    • 9. verify the accuracy of calculations w/an instructor
    • 10. question the answer if not within normal limits
  132. describes the relationship between 2 #'S
    ratio ex( 1 g: 15 gr)
  133. consists of 2 ratios that are equal:
    proportion ex(1 g: 15gr = 2 g: 30 gr)
  134. known unit of : known = desired unit : unknown
    measure equivalent of measure equivalent
  135. to solve the problem:
    multiply the 2 outer terms or extrems & then multiply the 2 inner terms or means
  136. cautions for the ratio & proportion method:
    • 1. label all parts of the equation
    • 2. the ratio on left contains the known quantity & the ratio on right contains desired and unknown quantities
    • 3. terms of the 2nd ratio must be in the same sequence as those in the 1st ratio
    • 4. multiply the extremes 1st and then the means
    • 5. take extra care w/decimals
    • 6. convert fractions to decimals. round off decimals to 1 decimal place
    • 7. label the answer
    • 8. verify the accuracy of calculations w/instructor
    • 9. question any unusual dosage not w/i normal limits
  137. in neonates, ___ & ____ needed for drug absorption & metabolism are not fully develped.
    renal function & some enzyme systems
  138. is more permeble
    neonates blood-brain barrier
  139. contributes a greater percentage of the neonates body weight, also affecting drug aborption
    total body water
  140. appropriate dosage for children, as well as adults, must take into consideration variables such as:
    age, weight, sex & metabolic, pathological or psychological conditions
  141. recommended pediatric drug dosages are derived from:
    data obtained in clinical trials utilizing sick children
  142. when preparing drug dosages for children, always refer to:
    PDR or AHFS Drug Information (AHFS DI)
  143. recommended dosages of drugs are often expressed:
    in the references as a # of milligrams per unit of body weight, per unit of time
  144. factors leading to possible dangerous cumulative effects for geriatric:
    slower metabolism, poor circulation, or impairment of liver, kidneys, lungs or central nervous system.
  145. can affect assimilation of drugs & interfere with therapeutic effect:
    any chronic disease, debility, dehydration or electrolyte imbalance
  146. prevention of medication errors:
    • 1. never lease the decimal point naked. always place a zero before a decimal point
    • 2. never place a decimal point & zero after a whole #
    • 3. avoid using decimals whenever whole #'s can be used as alternatives ex(0.5 g can be expressed as 500 mg)
    • 4. have a 2nd qualified person double-check any calculations for accuracy
    • 5. always question the order if you have any difficulty interpreting the spelling of a drug name or the # used for the dosage, or the dosage seems inappropriate

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