socio ch 4

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  1. Socialization
    Complex, lifelong learning process whereby individuals acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to participate effectively within a particular social group.
  2. Social Groups
    • Family
    • Peer
    • Cultural
    • Academic
    • Work
    • Religious
  3. Primary (broad type of socialization)
    • 0-12years
    • society's "Boot camp" (basic training)
    • fundamental knowledge
    • first world view
    • critical period of development
    • laying fundation
    • most consequential meeting nature n nurture(potentials&experiences)
  4. Primary (broad type of socialization) Characteristics
    • Often subtle - child treated = life safe..
    • Unintentional - punisment/sponge
    • Vicarious - see (model to follow/copy)
    • Idealized - "treat others the way you want to be treated"
    • Involuntary
    • More general, less especific.
  5. Agents of Socialization (catalost of change)
    Formal&informal "coaches," vehicles of culture - family, media, peers, formal educators

    Provide guience, instruction,support - approve/dissaprove

    For ideas, behaviour - social adaptation, values, beliefs
  6. Agent of Socialization : Peer groups
    • Ppl not friends but same age n similar status.
    • Help to be more indpndnt of family.
    • Influential over life issue - social activity,dating, taste
    • Dominant agent
  7. Agent of Socialization : Mass Media
    • Imxtant socializing agent 21st century.
    • Internet fast grown media and TV still most Canadians
  8. Agent of Socialization : Family
    • Most imxtant teacher - 4 good or bad
    • First n near exclusive, control of "new clay"
    • Initial "truths", "reality", "world view"
  9. Family Variables
    • Environmental variables - life lessons
    • Parents (demographic):
    • -single vrs multiple
    • - age (era)
    • - gender
    • - region(N,S,W,E) / culture
    • - religiously
    • - mental&physical health
    • - parenting style
  10. Parenting Style : degree of demanding n responsiveness/ tendencies
    Authoritarian: strict, demanding, unyield, cold, distance (fearful, sense of inferiority)

    Authoritative: balanced, flexible, reasonable, fair (autonomous, creative)

    Permissive: few expectations n boundries (self-centered, immature, behaviour problems)

    Over Protective: "helicopter parents" (naive, explosive rebelds)
  11. Agent of Socialization : SES (socio economic status)
    Lower education / Higher education
    • Opportunity, freedom, expossure, stimulation, psysical/social/psychologikl experiences.
    • Type of work (unskilled-professional)
    • Values n attitudes (conservative-liberal)
    • Housing, neighbourhood (crime-safe /space)
    • Diet
    • Health (mental-physical)
    • Schooling (resources, programs)
    • Recreation n leisure (option?)
    • Stress n strains (tension, volume)
    • Habits n practices
  12. Socialization n Personality: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    1st theory of personality
    influential, controversial
    • Levels of Consciousness:
    • Consciousness - aware in the moment
    • Pre-consciousness - stimulate to access
    • Unconsciousness - collection of feelings, ideas, fears that re deep n we're not aware of.
  13. Systems of Personality
    • 1. Dynamic: innate physic energy, driving force behind.
    • - Libido: desire, drives/ innate/fixed/limited invested.
    • *Eros: possitive life sustainig.
    • *Thanatos: negative, destructive energy.
  14. Systems of Personality
    • 2. Structural: components of our personality.
    • Id:
    • - reservoir of our basic insatiable desire
    • - primative, impulsive, unsocialized, irrational
    • - operates on the "pleasure principle"
    • - demand immediate gratification: "Just do it"

    • Ego: develops after the "terrible 2" for the Id.
    • - the consious organ of reason sanity
    • - reality principle (more logikl, organized n reasonable than the Id)
    • - operates as mediator btwn self n world
    • - attemps to appease the Id in a safe way
    • - not always successful

    • Super Ego: develops gradually from the Ego's experience with reality (rules)
    • - collection of rules of rules n regulations, moral in one's "concious" in over drive.
    • - veru conservative, rigid, demand obedience
    • - opposite of Id
    • - disobey = guilt,shame,self-contempt
  15. Defense Mecanisms
    Rationalization: justify (untrue) behaviour (lies)

    • Denial: think u have control over when is not true (drink 30 beers " I can stop when I want it")
    • Displacement: relieve the anger by hitting sth
    • Sublimation: take sth bad n transformed into sth social aceptable.
  16. Sequential Systems
    • 1. Oral (0-1yr)
    • - oval stimulation
    • - breast bread
    • - over dpndnt

    • 2. Anal (18months-2yrs)
    • - pop treaning

    • 3. Phallic (3-5yrs)
    • - oedipus complex [boy] (love 4 mom extreme)
    • - electra complex [girl] (love 4 dad extreme)
    • - Peter Pan Syndrome - guys dnt want to grow up
    • 4. Latency (6yrs-puberty)
    • - refocus attention to other ppl
    • - BFF's

    • 5. Genital (puberty-adulthood)
    • -procreation
  17. Theories Critiscism Freud
    • Too sexist
    • Experience socialization in adolescence
    • Connection btwn childhood (eraly)
    • Developt adult pensonality
    • Notion of unconciousness
  18. Socialization n Personality: Charles Horton Cooley
    Idea: "looking-glass self" (how we feel bout ourselves n how ppl persive us +/-)

    -Interact with ppl bout feedbacks +/- ; allow us to imagine how we re seen 4 others.

    -When then judge how we respond, others evaluate us = develop self-concept or set of feelings n ideas +/- bout who we're
  19. Socialization n Personality: George Herbert Mead (1934)
    1. Component "I" : subjective n impulsive aspect of the self that is present from birth. (impulsive-expontaneous)

    2. Component "The Me" : organize n stable concept of the self emerges n learn to take the role of cultural approved standars n expectations. (moral restrain/ domesticated)
  20. Stages of "The Me"
    - Imitation: of language or actions of signifiknt others (ppl that play imxtant roles or impact lives = parents)

    - Play stage: (activily replicate) pretend, mimiking what the child thinks [ play house, doctor, soldier, princess]

    - Game stage: play complex roles n adjust their behaviour to conform those expectations.
  21. Socialization n Personality: Jean Piaget
    Divide the dvelopment of thinking (or cognitive) skills during childhood in stages:

    -from simple (broad/mental filings systems) to complex, abstract thought refined discrimination(tell the difference)[CD's in order]

    • -a result of biologikl growth n adaptation = balancing of:
    • * Assimilation: incorporate new experiences into new schema.
    • *Accomodation: no previous schema, dvelop new schema to deal with totally new experience [drive]
  22. Jean Piaget: Develpmental Stages
    • 1.Sensorimotor (0-2yrs)
    • - learn bout the world throw senses n biofeeback
    • - gradual undrstanding bout connection btwn body n mind
    • - symbolic representation (language dvelopment)

    • 2.Preoperational (2-7yrs)
    • - greater development of motor skills
    • - egocentric = "prisioners of their own point of view"
    • - literal thinkers = child hear n sees
    • - moral realistics = accept rules without questioning

    • 3.Concrete Operational (7-13yrs)
    • - developt the kpacity for conservation, relational terms (wider-shorter)
    • - moral relativism (internalized conception of fairness, justice)

    • 4.Formal Operational (13+ yrs)
    • - more kpable of abstract thought (meaningful of life) to over realistics.
  23. Socialization n Personality: Lawrence Kohlberg
    Idea: how children's moral reasoning (ability to judge from right to wrong) passes though stages:

    1. Preconventional Stage: everything is right if satisfy the young children.

    2. Conventional Stage: everything that is right n wrong dpnds if please cultural norms (parents, teachers, law)

    3. Postconventional Stage: capacity to think abstractly n critically bout moral principles = ponder meanings, question authorities.
  24. Socialization n Personality: Lev Vygotsky
    Idea: the ways of thinking are determined by the nature of the social institutions in which individuals grow up.
  25. Secondary (broad type of socialization)
    • subsequent learning that helps induct a person into new roles in society
    • Adult education
  26. Secondary (broad type of socialization) Characteristics
    • overt
    • intentional - first hand
    • practical - skills oriented
    • voluntary - choose what u want to do = go or not to U.
  27. Secondary (broad type of socialization) Types
    • 1.Anticipatory: (anticipate into new roles)
    • aquiring skills n knowledge that help perform a role that will help in the future [job,parenting,marriage]
    • adopt norms, values, behaviour patterns that expect ones to belong to.
    • via formal education, formal n informal mentors

    • 2. Resocialization: (relearn things)
    • replace old ways of thining n acting with new ways.
    • not freely chosen [adapt to injury/poverty/loss of spouse]
    • sometimes choose [cults(religion), move to new culture, new career]
Card Set
socio ch 4
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