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Complex, lifelong learning process whereby individuals acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to participate effectively within a particular social group.
Primary (broad type of socialization)
- society's "Boot camp" (basic training)
- fundamental knowledge
- first world view
- critical period of development
- laying fundation
- most consequential meeting nature n nurture(potentials&experiences)
Primary (broad type of socialization) Characteristics
- Often subtle - child treated = life safe..
- Unintentional - punisment/sponge
- Vicarious - see (model to follow/copy)
- Idealized - "treat others the way you want to be treated"
- More general, less especific.
Agents of Socialization (catalost of change)
Formal&informal "coaches," vehicles of culture - family, media, peers, formal educators
Provide guience, instruction,support - approve/dissaprove
For ideas, behaviour - social adaptation, values, beliefs
Agent of Socialization : Peer groups
- Ppl not friends but same age n similar status.Help to be more indpndnt of family.
- Influential over life issue - social activity,dating, taste
- Dominant agent
Agent of Socialization : Mass Media
- Imxtant socializing agent 21st century.
- Internet fast grown media and TV still most Canadians
Agent of Socialization : Family
- Most imxtant teacher - 4 good or bad First n near exclusive, control of "new clay"
- Initial "truths", "reality", "world view"
- Environmental variables - life lessonsParents (demographic):
- -single vrs multiple- age (era) - gender
- - region(N,S,W,E) / culture - religiously
- - mental&physical health- parenting style
Parenting Style : degree of demanding n responsiveness/ tendencies
Authoritarian: strict, demanding, unyield, cold, distance (fearful, sense of inferiority)
Authoritative: balanced, flexible, reasonable, fair (autonomous, creative)
Permissive: few expectations n boundries (self-centered, immature, behaviour problems)
Over Protective: "helicopter parents" (naive, explosive rebelds)
Agent of Socialization : SES (socio economic status)
Lower education / Higher education
- Opportunity, freedom, expossure, stimulation, psysical/social/psychologikl experiences.Type of work (unskilled-professional)
- Values n attitudes (conservative-liberal)
- Housing, neighbourhood (crime-safe /space)
- Health (mental-physical)
- Schooling (resources, programs)
- Recreation n leisure (option?)
- Stress n strains (tension, volume)
- Habits n practices
Socialization n Personality: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
1st theory of personality
- Levels of Consciousness:Consciousness - aware in the moment
- Pre-consciousness - stimulate to access
- Unconsciousness - collection of feelings, ideas, fears that re deep n we're not aware of.
Systems of Personality
- 1. Dynamic: innate physic energy, driving force behind.
- - Libido: desire, drives/ innate/fixed/limited invested.
- *Eros: possitive life sustainig.
- *Thanatos: negative, destructive energy.
Systems of Personality
- 2. Structural: components of our personality.
- - reservoir of our basic insatiable desire
- - primative, impulsive, unsocialized, irrational
- - operates on the "pleasure principle"
- - demand immediate gratification: "Just do it"
- Ego: develops after the "terrible 2" for the Id.
- - the consious organ of reason sanity
- - reality principle (more logikl, organized n reasonable than the Id)
- - operates as mediator btwn self n world
- - attemps to appease the Id in a safe way
- - not always successful
- Super Ego: develops gradually from the Ego's experience with reality (rules)
- - collection of rules of rules n regulations, moral in one's "concious" in over drive.
- - veru conservative, rigid, demand obedience
- - opposite of Id
- - disobey = guilt,shame,self-contempt
Rationalization: justify (untrue) behaviour (lies)
Denial: think u have control over when is not true (drink 30 beers " I can stop when I want it")
- Displacement: relieve the anger by hitting sth
- Sublimation: take sth bad n transformed into sth social aceptable.
- 1. Oral (0-1yr)
- - oval stimulation
- - breast bread
- - over dpndnt
2. Anal (18months-2yrs)
- pop treaning
3. Phallic (3-5yrs)
- - oedipus complex [boy] (love 4 mom extreme)
- - electra complex [girl] (love 4 dad extreme)
- - Peter Pan Syndrome - guys dnt want to grow up
- 4. Latency (6yrs-puberty)
- - refocus attention to other ppl
- - BFF's
5. Genital (puberty-adulthood)
Theories Critiscism Freud
- Too sexist
- Experience socialization in adolescence
- Connection btwn childhood (eraly)
- Developt adult pensonality
- Notion of unconciousness
Socialization n Personality: Charles Horton Cooley
Idea: "looking-glass self" (how we feel bout ourselves n how ppl persive us +/-)
-Interact with ppl bout feedbacks +/- ; allow us to imagine how we re seen 4 others.
-When then judge how we respond, others evaluate us = develop self-concept or set of feelings n ideas +/- bout who we're
Socialization n Personality: George Herbert Mead (1934)
1. Component "I" : subjective n impulsive aspect of the self that is present from birth. (impulsive-expontaneous)
2. Component "The Me" : organize n stable concept of the self emerges n learn to take the role of cultural approved standars n expectations. (moral restrain/ domesticated)
Stages of "The Me"
- Imitation: of language or actions of signifiknt others (ppl that play imxtant roles or impact lives = parents)
- Play stage: (activily replicate) pretend, mimiking what the child thinks [ play house, doctor, soldier, princess]
- Game stage: play complex roles n adjust their behaviour to conform those expectations.
Socialization n Personality: Jean Piaget
Divide the dvelopment of thinking (or cognitive) skills during childhood in stages:
-from simple (broad/mental filings systems) to complex, abstract thought refined discrimination(tell the difference)[CD's in order]
-a result of biologikl growth n adaptation = balancing of:
- * Assimilation: incorporate new experiences into new schema.
- *Accomodation: no previous schema, dvelop new schema to deal with totally new experience [drive]
Jean Piaget: Develpmental Stages
- 1.Sensorimotor (0-2yrs)
- - learn bout the world throw senses n biofeeback
- - gradual undrstanding bout connection btwn body n mind
- - symbolic representation (language dvelopment)
- 2.Preoperational (2-7yrs)
- - greater development of motor skills
- - egocentric = "prisioners of their own point of view"
- - literal thinkers = child hear n sees
- - moral realistics = accept rules without questioning
- 3.Concrete Operational (7-13yrs)
- - developt the kpacity for conservation, relational terms (wider-shorter)
- - moral relativism (internalized conception of fairness, justice)
- 4.Formal Operational (13+ yrs)
- - more kpable of abstract thought (meaningful of life) to over realistics.
Socialization n Personality: Lawrence Kohlberg
Idea: how children's moral reasoning (ability to judge from right to wrong) passes though stages:
1. Preconventional Stage: everything is right if satisfy the young children.
2. Conventional Stage: everything that is right n wrong dpnds if please cultural norms (parents, teachers, law)
3. Postconventional Stage: capacity to think abstractly n critically bout moral principles = ponder meanings, question authorities.
Socialization n Personality: Lev Vygotsky
Idea: the ways of thinking are determined by the nature of the social institutions in which individuals grow up.
Secondary (broad type of socialization)
- subsequent learning that helps induct a person into new roles in society
- Adult education
Secondary (broad type of socialization) Characteristics
- intentional - first hand
- practical - skills oriented
- voluntary - choose what u want to do = go or not to U.
Secondary (broad type of socialization) Types
- 1.Anticipatory: (anticipate into new roles)
- aquiring skills n knowledge that help perform a role that will help in the future [job,parenting,marriage]
- adopt norms, values, behaviour patterns that expect ones to belong to.
- via formal education, formal n informal mentors
- 2. Resocialization: (relearn things)
- replace old ways of thining n acting with new ways.
- not freely chosen [adapt to injury/poverty/loss of spouse]
- sometimes choose [cults(religion), move to new culture, new career]