Biology 106 Lab

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regunnar
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Biology 106 Lab
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2012-03-14 12:31:33
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Midterm Study
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  1. Features of Discristata (Euglena)?
    Domain of Eukarya - Lineage Discristata

    Notable features: flagella, cell membrane (bands of pellicle), choloroplasts, pyrenoids (shared carb stores w/ ancesteral green algae), nucleus

    Feed: heterotrophic, autotrophic, photosynthesis

    • Reproduce: mitosis, no sexes
    • Sense: Eyespot (stigma)
  2. Characteristics of Phylum Dinoflagellata?
    • Lineage Alveolata
    • Phylum Dinoflagelleta

    • unicellular, 2 laterall flagella
    • armored (thecate)
    • bioluminescent
    • mostly marine (red tide, biolumenscent wake of ships)

    Food: autotrophic, chlorophylls, cartenoids

    Movement: erratic (dancing motion),

    Reproduce: asexual (shed thecate), sexual


  3. Phylum Ciliata
    • Lineage Alveolata
    • Phylum Ciliata
    • (Paramecium)

    • Notable: cilia, macro- and micro-nuclei,
    • Largest protist phyla,

    Move: cilia

    Feed: cilia

    Reproduce: asexually (fission) & sexually (conjugation)

  4. Apicomplexa?
    • Lineage Alveolata
    • Phlum Apicomplexa

    Notable: parasitic, "apical complex" to penetrate host

    Move: glide or none at all

    species: Gregarina (insect gut), Plamodium vivax (malaria),

    LIFE CYCLE: often several stages, an invertebrate & a vertrebrate.
  5. Paramecium?
    • Lineage Alveolata
    • Phylum Ciliata

    Notable: freshwater, trichocycts, cystome, oral groove, vacuole and cilia

    Feeding: Thread-like darts called trichocysts anchor the paramecium or poison prey. Food enters an indentation called the oral groove, leading to the cystome ("cell mouth") Then packaged into a vacuole that circulates throughout the cell.

    Reproduce: conjugation (individuals exchange 2 micronuclei)

    Move: cilia
  6. Rhizopoda?
    • Lineage Amoebozoa
    • Phylum Rhizopoda
    • (amoebae & slime molds)

    Notable: psuedopodia-like amoebas, a single nucleus

    Reproduce: fission, no spores

    Feed: heterotrophic
  7. Amoeba?
    • Lineage Amoebozoa
    • Phylum Rhizopoda

    Notable: psuedopodia, amoeboid movement

    Feeding: phagocytosis ("cell eating"): psuedopodia extend and engulf an object. The ameoba surrounds the food and engulfs it in a vacuole where it is digested and broken down. Undigested food is eliminated when the vacuole moves to the plasma membrane and fuses with it.

    Movement: amoeboid movement: psuedopodia extend out as the cytoplasm converts to a gelatin and back.

  8. Myxogostrida?
    • Lineage Ameoboza
    • Phylum Myxogastrida

    • acellular slime molds
    • multicellular psuedoplasmodium
    • plasmodium: numerous nuclei in a single, large cell.

    Feed: heterotrophic - the plasmodium moves spreads slowly, engulfing food particles like bacteria, algae, dead organisms, etc.

    Reproduction: a spore-producing, fruiting structure called a sporangium. The spores b/come flagellated swarm cells. Cells fuse and a zygote is formed becoming a new plasmodium.
  9. Dictyostelida?
    • Lineage Amoebozoa
    • Phylum Dictyostelida

    Note: cellular slime molds, when cells mass they retain their individuality, myxamoebas (individuals), pseudoplasmodium: ad hoc network for reproduction

    feed: heterotrophic (feed individually),

    Reproduction: myxamoebas attract together chemically and form an irregular pseudoplasmodium and construct a fruiting structure that distributes spores.
  10. Phylum Foramnifera?
    • Lineage Rhizaria
    • Phylum Foramnifera

    Note: Amoeba-like cells that secrete calcium carbonate "test" around them. Created limestone formations.

    Food: psuedopodia extend out and interconnect to form a network that capture food.

    Reproduction: asexual, discard tests and secrete new ones.
  11. Actinopoda?
    • Lineage Rhizopodia
    • Phylum Actinopodia

    Note: amoebas with numerous axopodia. Glassy skeletons.

    Food: long, thin psuedopodia call axopodia gather food from the water column and draw them internally.

    • Radiolarians: marine
    • Helozoans: freshwater & lack skeleton
  12. Porifera?
    • Lineage Opisthokonta (Animals)
    • Phylum Porifera
    • (sponges)

    Notable: choanoflagellates, diploblastic, asymmetrical, a skeleton of spicules and/or spongin

    Types: asconoid, syconoid, leuconoid

    Feed: filter-feeders-- water enters the walls through the ostia, entering the central chamber called the spongocoel. Flagellated choanocytes absorb any nutrients as water then escapes through the summit osculum.

    Reproduction: fragmentation or budding. A few Sexual hermaphrodite individuals release sperm into the water column to be swept up by other sponges.
  13. Sponges?
    Phylum Porifera

    Asconoid, syconoid, leuconoid.



  14. Cnidarians
    Phylum Cnidaria

    • Class Hydrozoa (hydras, medusas)
    • Class Scyphozoa (true jellyfish, medusa-dominant)
    • Class Anthozoa (sea anemones & corals)

    Notable: Radial Symmetry diploblastic, stinging cells. Life cycle alternates between a polyp and medusa stage. Jelly-like mesoglea that acts as a simple skeleton.

    Feed: Stinging cells called cnidocytes imoblize prey and predators. A single opening that acts as both the mouth and anus absorbs food into the body.
  15. Hydrozoa?
    • Phylum Cnidarian
    • Class Hydrozoa

    Notable: attach to rocks with a pedal disk, a mouth at the end of a raised region called the hypostome.

    Feed: predatory- prey contacts a tentacle and is immobilized by exploding cnidocytes. It is then slowly engulfed into the mouth. Body cavity: coelenteron.

    Reproduction: asexual budding. Sexual: temporary ovaries or testes grow in epidermis. Eggs are fertilized and dropped off with a thin chitin coating.

    Development: alternates between medusa and polyp stage. Polyps form branching hydroid colonies, a highly branched coelenteron. Some form hydranths with a mouth surrounded by tentacles for feeding. Others form gonangia for reproduction. Tiny medusa bud and escape.

    Movement: glide on pedal disc. Somersaulting end-over-end. Walking on their tentacles. Float by extruding a bubble.

  16. Scyphozoa
    • Phylum Cnidarian
    • Class Scyphozoa
    • (Jellyfish)

    Notable: medusas are the dominant life form. Polyps are small or lacking. THe Mouth is surrounded by four lobes or tentacles.

  17. Platyhelminthes?
    • Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Class Turbellaria
    • Class Mongenea
    • Class Trematoda
    • Class Cestoda

    Notable: Bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, organs. Cephalization. Parasitic and free-living.

    Movement: a stremlined body and the ability to see where it's going

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