HD

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Author:
solis025
ID:
141450
Filename:
HD
Updated:
2012-03-13 21:07:09
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Human Development
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Midterm Review
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  1. Influence of herditary
    žGenetics

    • žTransmission of
    • physical and psychological traits and problems/disorders

    • žChromosomes – 23
    • pairs; 23rd
    • determines sex

    • žGenes – thousands on
    • every chromosome

    • žGenotype – gene code;
    • XX or XY (example)

    • žPhenotype –
    • expression of the genotype
  2. —Dominant / Recessive
    • —Homozygous; same allele (BB
    • or bb; example)

    —Heterozygous; different alleles (Bb; example)

    —carriers
  3. —Twins
    —Monozygotic “identicle”

    —Dizygotic “fraternal”
  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • —Children with greater or fewer than the typical 46
    • chromosomes

    —Health and behavioral problems

    —Increased risk with increased parental age

    —Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  5. —Sex-Linked Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • —Greater or fewer than the 23rd pair (sex
    • chromosome)

    —X0 = Turner’s Syndrome
  6. Genetic Abnormalities
    —Attributed to genes so can be dominant or recessive

    —Huntington’s = dominant

    —Sickle-Cell Anemia = recessive
  7. —Blood Tests for genetic counseling
    —AFP = alpha fetoprotein test

    • —Neural tube defects / genetic disorders / certain
    • chromosomal
  8. —Ultrasound for genetic counseling
    —Sound waves

    —Can see structures / track growth
  9. —Amniocentesis (14th-16thweek)
    • —Sample of amniotic fluid; need to culture cells (1-2
    • weeks)

    —Genetic / chromosomal / sex
  10. ChorionicVillus Sampling (9th-12th week
    —Sample of developing placenta

    —Results in days

    —Genetic / chromosomal / sex
  11. Ova in conception
    • —Total present at
    • birth 400,000

    —Immature

    • —Released from
    • alternating ovaries one per month (hopefully)
  12. Sperm in conception
    • —Begin maturation
    • (post-puberty) in testicles every six weeks

    • —150 million+ in each
    • ejaculation (approximately 1% of total volume)

    —4 types of sperm

    • —Can ‘smell’ the egg;
    • change in calcium ions produced by ova release
  13. Infertility
    • žApproximate 1/6
    • couples in US

    • ž1 year of trying
    • without prevention

    žCauses

    •Male

    • –Low sperm count / low
    • motility

    •Female

    • –Endometriosis /
    • Scarred fallopian tubes

    •Spontaneous abortion
  14. Germinal Stage
    —(first 2 weeks)

    —Conception to implantation
  15. Embryonic Stage
    —week 2-8)

    —organogenesis
  16. Fetal Stage
    —(week 8-40)

    —Finishing touches
  17. Full term
    38 weeks+
  18. preterm
    <38 weeks
  19. —Small for date
    —Smaller than they should be given their gestational age
  20. —Age of viability
    • —26 weeks; point at which there is a 50% chance of
    • survival outside the mother
  21. Environmental Influences
    žNutrition

    žTeratogens

    •Toxins / Drugs / Rh incompatibility

    •Parental age

    •Infections

    žDosage and Timing

    • •Critical periods;
    • period during which exposure is most harmful even in small doses (i.e.,
    • organogenesis)
  22. Stages of Childbirth
    • •Braxton Hicks
    • •First stage
    • •Transition
    • Second stage
    • Third stage
  23. •Braxton Hicks
    –First usually painless contractions
  24. •First stage
    • –Regular
    • uterine contractions efface and dilate the cervix to 10cm (4in)

    • •When
    • 4-5 minutes apart head to hospital

    • –Dilation
    • causes the most pain

    • –Longest
    • stage (few hours – more than a day)

    • •Shorter
    • with subsequent deliveries
  25. •Transition
    • –fully
    • dilated and head moves into vagina

    • –Lasts
    • approximately 30 minutes
  26. Second stage
    •(minutes – hours)

    • –Begins with baby appearing at the
    • opening of the vagina and ends in birth
  27. Third stage
    •(minutes – hour)

    –placental stage (afterbirth)

    • –Placenta separates from uterine
    • wall and is expelled
  28. Postpartum Period
    •4th trimester

    • •Weeks following delivery
    • (no specific limit)

    • •Physical / Psychological
    • Adjustment

    –Mother

    –Father

    –Siblings

    • •Blues / Depression /
    • Psychosis

    •Bonding
  29. Sudden Infant Death (SIDS)
    • •Most
    • common cause of death during the first year

    • •Risk
    • factors

    • –2-4
    • months

    –Males

    • –Stomach
    • sleeping

    • –Premature
    • / low birth weight

    • –Lower
    • SES

    • –African
    • American / Inuit

    • –Teenage
    • mother

    • –Mothers
    • smoked or used narcotics during pregnancy
  30. Height and Weight
    • •Most
    • dramatic gains during prenatal development but still substantial gains during
    • this period

    • •Should
    • triple their birth weight by 1 year

    • •Height
    • increases by 50% over the first year

    • •Growth
    • occurs in spurts

    • •Gain
    • 4-6 inches and 4-7 lbs (on average) over the second year
  31. Body Proportions
    • •Neonate
    • – the head is about ¼ the length of the body (very top heavy)
    • Arms grow before legs.
  32. Failure to Thrive (FTT)
    • •Serious
    • disorder

    • •Impairs
    • growth in infancy and early childhood

    –Does not make normal gains in height and weight

    • –Slow physical growth but also cognitive, behavioral and
    • emotional problems
  33. Jean Piaget
    • •Emphasized the role
    • of maturation

    • –Almost
    • to the point of excluding adult and peer influences on cognitive development

    • •Believed development
    • occurred in rigid stages

    • –Process
    • appears to be more gradual than he thought

    •Schemes

    • –Ways
    • of perceiving and mentally representing the world

    • –Development
    • occurs in two ways:

    •Assimilation


    • –Absorbing
    • new events into existing schemes

    •Accommodation

    • –When
    • current scheme is not sufficient for a novel event children modify existing
    • schemes

    • –Development
    • occurs in an orderly sequence of stages

    • •How
    • fast a child moves through varies but the stages stay the same

    • •4
    • Stages (only discussing the first one here)

    –Sensorimotor (birth – 2 years)

    –Preoperational

    • –Concrete
    • operational

    • –Formal
    • operational
  34. Patterns of Attachment
    • •Secure
    • and Insecure

    • •Most
    • infants are securely attached

    • •Strange-situation
    • (Ainsworth)

    –Secure

    • •Mildly distressed when mother
    • leaves and seek interaction upon reunion and readily soothed

    • •Happier, more social and more
    • cooperative with caregivers

    • •At 5-6 years get along better
    • with peers

    –Insecure

    • •Not distressed at all or severely
    • distressed when mother leaves

    • •Ignore / resist or ambivalent to
    • mother’s return

    •Not easily soothed

    • •Insecure at 1 year is predictive
    • of psychological disorders at age 17
  35. Clear cut attachment
    • clear cut attachment occurs
    • about 6-7 months and is characterized by intensified dependence on the primary
    • care giver usually the mother
  36. Failure of Attachment
    •Social Deprivation

    –Withdrawal and depression

    –Little interest in interaction

    –Rocking

    • –Deficient sensory stimulation and
    • social interaction

    –Retarded growth

    • –Can recover even after almost 2
    • years

    •Child Abuse and neglect

    –Approx 3 million each year

    • –Personal, social and
    • psychological disorders

    –Less securely attached

    –Less intimate with peers

    –More angry and aggressive

    –Lower self-esteem

    –less accomplished in school

    • More
    • likely to engage in risky behavior
  37. Day Care
    • •High quality day care has been shown to be
    • enriching for infant development

    • –Low
    • infant to caregiver ratio

    • –Good
    • curriculum

    • –Appropriate
    • and ample stimuli (toys, etc.)

    • –Safe
    • and healthy environment
  38. Emotional Development
    • •Initially
    • = attraction to pleasant and withdrawal from unpleasant

    • •Only
    • show a few emotions during initial months

    • •Development
    • linked to cognitive development and social experience

    • •2-3
    • months social smile replaces a reflexive smile

    • •3-5
    • months infants laugh at active stimuli
  39. Personality Development
    •Self-concept

    –Emerges gradually during infancy

    • –Red dot in the mirror test (touch
    • their own nose around 18 months)

    • –Most 2 year olds can point to a
    • picture of themselves and they begin to use the word “I” or their own name similtaneously

    • –Self-awareness allows for
    • development of notions of sharing and cooperation and self-conscious emotions
    • such as embarrassment, guilt, shame, envy, pride and empathy

    • –(Psychoanalytic) Demonstrated
    • through growing autonomy / refusal to comply with caregivers requests
  40. Sex Differences
    • •Girls
    • motor development matures more rapidly

    • •No
    • gender differences in social behaviors

    • •No
    • initial gender preference for toys but present by 12-18 months

    • •By 24
    • months children are aware of what is gender appropriate

    • •Adults
    • interact differently with boys than with girls

    • •Fathers
    • tend to be more gender specific in interactions with their children
  41. Brain Development
    • •By 2 years the brain is 75% of it’s adult weight and by
    • 5 years it is 90% of it’s adult weight
  42. Motor Skills
    •Gross motor skills

    • –Involve
    • large muscles used in locomotion

    • •Differences in gross
    • motor development

    • –Little
    • sex differentiation

    • –More
    • individual differences

    •Physical Activity

    • –Rough
    • and tumble play

    • •Running,
    • chasing, fleeing, wrestling, hitting with an open hand

    • •Not
    • the same as aggressive behavior

    • •Helps
    • develop physical and social skills

    • •Usually
    • with Dad

    • –Activity
    • levels

    • •Like
    • parent like child

    • •Boys
    • tend to be more active (biology or environment?)

    • •Children
    • at this age are the most active they will ever be

    •Fine motor skills

    • –Involve
    • small muscles used in manipulation and coordination

    • •allows
    • children to hold a pencil, print / write,
    • stack blocks, tie shoelaces and zip jackets

    • –Develop
    • gradually across this period

    • Lag gross motor skill
    • development

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