MEDA 110 Ch. 14

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MEDA 110 Ch. 14
2012-03-14 17:59:02
MEDA 110 14

MEDA 110 Ch. 14
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  1. Blepharoptosis
    Drooping of the upper eyelid.
  2. Blepharospasm
    A twitching of the eyelid muscles, may be due to eyestrain or nervous irritability.
  3. Conjunctivitis
    Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye, may be caused by a bacterial infection, a viral infection, allergy, or a response to the environment.
  4. Corneal
    Pertaining to the cornea.
  5. Cycloplegia
    Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye.
  6. Dacryoadenitis
    Inflammation of the lacrimal gland.
  7. Dacryorrhea
    Excessive flow of tears.
  8. Ectropion
    Eversion of the edge of the eyelid.
  9. Emmetropia
    A state of normal vision. The eye is at rest and the image is focused directly on the retina.
  10. Entropion
    Inversion of the outermost layers of the sclera.
  11. Esotropia or Crosseyes
    An obvious inward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye.
  12. Exotropia
    An obvious outward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye, also called walleye.
  13. Extraocular
    Pertaining to outside the eye.
  14. Floaters
    One or more spots that appear to drift or "float" across the visual field.
  15. Funduscopy
    The examination of the fundus of the eye, the base or the deepest part of the eye, with an instrument called an opthalmoscope through a procedure called opthalmoscopy.
  16. Hemianopia or Hemianopsia
    Loss of vision, or blindness, in on-half of the visual field.
  17. Iridocyclitis
    Inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye.
  18. Iritis
    Inflammation of the iris.
  19. Keratoconjunctivitis
    Inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva of the eye.
  20. Keratoconus
    A cone shaped protrusion of the center of the cornea, not accompanied by inflammation.
  21. Keratomycosis
    A fungal growth present on the cornea.
  22. Lacrimal
    Pertaining to the tears.
  23. Lacrimation
    The secretion of tears from the lacrimal glands.
  24. Miosis
    Abnormal consrtiction of the pupil of the eye.
  25. Miotic
    An agent that causes the pupil of the eye to constrict.
  26. Mydriasis
    Abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye.
  27. Mydriatic
    An agent that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate.
  28. Nasolacrimal
    Pertaining to the nose and the lacrimal tear ducts.
  29. Nystagmus
    Involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye. These "quivering" movements may be from side to side, up and down, or a combination of both.
  30. Opthalmologist
    A medical doctor who specializes in the comprehensive care of the eyes and visual system in the prevention and treatment of eye disease and injury.
  31. Opthalmology
    Branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye.
  32. Opthalmopathy
    Any disease of the eye.
  33. Optic
    Pertaining to the eyes or to sight.
  34. Optician
    A health professional who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or for contact lenses.
  35. Optometrist
    Is responsible for examination of the eye, and associated structures to determine vision problems. He or she can also prescribe lenses or optical aids.
  36. Palpebral
    Pertaining to the eyelid.
  37. Papilledema
    Swelling of the optic disc, visible upon opthalmoscopic examination of the interior eye.
  38. Phacomalacia
    Softening of the lens of the eye.
  39. Photophobia
    Abnormal sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes.
  40. Presbyopia
    Loss of accommodation for near vision, poor near vision due to the natural aging process.
  41. Pupillary
    Pertaining to the pupil of the eye.
  42. Retinopathy
    Any disease of the retina.
  43. Sclerectomy
    Excision, or removal, of a portion of the sclera of the eye.
  44. Scotoma
    An area of depressed vision (blindness) within the usual visual field, surrounded by an area of normal vision.
  45. Uveitis
    Inflammation of the uveal tract of the eye, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
  46. Vitreous
    Pertaining to the vitreous body of the eye.
  47. Ambi-
    • Both side.
    • Ambiopia
  48. Ambly/o
    • Dull
    • Amblyopia
  49. Aque/o
    • Watery
    • Aqueous Humor
  50. Blephar/o
    • Eyelid
    • Blepharitis
  51. Conjunctiv/o
    • Conjunctiva
    • Conjunctivitis
  52. Cor/o
    • Pupil
    • Anisocoria
  53. Corne/o
    • Cornea
    • Corneal
  54. Dacry/o
    • Tears
    • Dacryoadenitis
  55. Dacryocyst/o
    • Tear sac
    • Dacryocystectomy
  56. Dipl/o
    • Double
    • Diplopia
  57. Epi-
    • Upon, over
    • Episclritis
  58. Eso-
    • Within
    • Esotropia
  59. Exo-
    • Outward
    • Exotropia
  60. Extra-
    • Outside, beyond.
    • Extraocular
  61. Glauc/o
    • Gray, silver
    • Glaucoma
  62. Hemi-
    • Half
    • Hemianopia
  63. Ir/o
    • Iris
    • Iritis
  64. Irid/o
    • iris
    • Iridoplegia
  65. Kerat/o
    • Hard, horny, also refers to the cornea of the eye.
    • Keratitis
  66. Lacrim/o
    • Tears
    • Lacrimal
  67. Mi/o
    • Smaller
    • Miosis
  68. Nas/o
    • Nose
    • Nasolacrimal
  69. Nyct/o or Nyctal/o
    • Night
    • Nyctalopia (Challenge Word)
  70. Nyctalopia (Challenge Word)
    Night blindness.
  71. Ocul/o
    • Eye
    • Oculomotor
  72. Opthalm/o
    • Eye
    • Opthalmoscope
  73. -opia
    • Visual condition.
    • Diplopia
  74. -opsia
    • Visual condition.
    • Hemianopsia
  75. Opt/o or Optic/o
    • Eye, vision.
    • Optic or Optician
  76. Palpebr/o
    • Eyelid
    • Palpebral
  77. Phac/o, Phak/o
    • Lens
    • Phacomalacia
  78. Phot/o
    • Light
    • Photophobia
  79. -ptosis
    • Drooping or prolapse.
    • Blepharoptosis
  80. Pupill/o
    • Pupil
    • Pupillary
  81. Retin/o
    • Retina
    • Retinitis
  82. Scler/o
    • Hard, also refers to the slcera of the eye.
    • Sclera
  83. Scot/o
    • Darkness
    • Scotoma
  84. Ton/o
    • Tension
    • Tonometry
  85. Vitre/o
    • Glassy
    • Vitreous Humor
  86. Xer/o
    • Dry
    • Xerophthalmia
  87. Astigmatism
    A refractive error causing light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea or lens.
  88. Blepharitis
    Acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin.
  89. Blepharoptosis
    Occurs when the eyelid partially or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle.
  90. Blindness
    Causes of blindness include trauma, cataracts, glaucoma, nutritional deficiences, trachoma, and onchocerciasis.
  91. Monochromatism (Color Blindness)
    • Inability to perceive visual colors sharply.
    • Daltonism: the person is unable to distinguish reds from greens. This is a sex linked inherited disorder.
    • Achromatic Vision: Person cannot distinguish any color, perceiving only white, gray, and black. This is a defect in the retinal cones or the absence of the retinal cones.
  92. Cataract
    The lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.
  93. Phacoemulsification and Extracapsular Cataract Extraction
    Two primary ways to remove a cataract.
  94. Chalazion
    A cyst or nodule on the eyelid resulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid.
  95. Conjunctivitis
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball.
  96. Corneal Abrasion
    A disruption of the cornea's surface epithelium commonly caused by an eyelash, a small foreign body, or a scratch from a fingernail.
  97. Diabetic Retinopathy
    • Occurs as a consequence of long-term or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in which the tissues of the retina experience scarring due to the following:
    • Abnormal dilation and constriction of vessels.
    • Hemorrhages
    • Microaneurysm
    • Abnormal formation of new vessels causing leakage of blood into the vitreous humor.
  98. Ectropion
    Turning out or eversion of the eyelash margins (especially the lower eyelid) from the eyeball, leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.
  99. Entropion
    Turning in of the eyelash margins (especially the lower margins), resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye (redness, tearing, burning, and itching).
  100. Exophthalmia
    An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris, typically due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents.
  101. Hemianopia
    Loss of vision, or blindness in one half of the visual field.
  102. Hordeolum
    Bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness, swelling, and mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash.
  103. Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
    A refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal.
  104. Hyphema
    A bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye, resulting from a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury.
  105. Keratitis
    Corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect (may be due to dry eyes or ineffective eyelid closure).
  106. Macular Degeneration
    Progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macula due to aging. Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), this condition is a common and progressive cause of visual deficiency and permanent reading impairment in the adult over 65 years.
  107. Myopia (Nearsightedness)
    A refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal.
  108. Nyctalopia
    • Night blindness.
    • Inadequate vision at night or in faint lighting following reduction in the syntheses of rhodopsin, a compound in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low density light.
  109. Nystagmus
    Vertical, horizontal, rotary, or mixed rhythmic involuntary movements of the eyes caused by use of alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on the brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development.
  110. Ophthalmia Neonatorum
    A purulent (contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and or cornea in the newborn.
  111. Presbyopia
    A refractive error occuring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity.
  112. Pterygium
    An irregular growth developing as a fold in the conjunctiva, usually on the nasal side of the cornea, that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil.
  113. Retinal Detachment
    The partial or complete splitting away of the retina from the pigmented vascular layer called the choroid, interrupting vascular supply to the retina and thus creating a medical emergency.
  114. Retinal Tear
    An opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor.
  115. Scleritis
    Presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball.
  116. Scotoma
    A defined area in one or both eyes that has a decreased visual function.
  117. Strabismus
    • Failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye. The most common type of strabismus is nonparalytic strabismus, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship.
    • Convergent: crosseye
    • Divergent: walleye.
  118. Synechia
    An adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery or as a secondary condition of one of the following pathological conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, keratitis, or uveitis.
  119. Trachoma
    An infectious eye disease caused chlamydia trachomatis, which is chronic and will lead to blindness without effective treatment.
  120. Uveitis
    Inflammation of all or part of the middle vascualr layer of the eye made up of the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.
  121. Corneal Transplant
    Surgical transplantation of a donor cornea (cadaver's) into the eye of a recipient, usually under local anesthesia.
  122. Electronystagmography
    A group of tests used in evaluating the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
  123. Electroretinogram (ERG)
    A recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after stimulation of light.
  124. Extracapsular Cataract
    Surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocular lens implant.
  125. Fluorescein Staining
    Application of a fluorescein-stained sterile filter paper strip moistened with a few drops of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic solution to the lower cul-de-sac of the eye to visualize a corneal abrasion.
  126. Gonioscopy
    Process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye for evaluation, management, and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures. The examination involves using a gonioprism and a slit-lamp biomicroscope.
  127. Intraocular Lens Implant
    The surgical process of cataract extraction and the insertion of an artificial lens in the patient's eye. This restores visual acuity and provides improved depth perception, light refraction, and binocular vision.
  128. Iridectomy
    Extraction of a small segment of the iris to open an anterior chamber angle and permit the flow of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers, thus relieving the person's intraocular pressure.
  129. Keratoplasty Corneal Grafting
    The transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve the vision in the affected eye.
  130. Laser in Situ Keratomileusis
    The LASIK procedure is a form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness (myopia).
  131. Ophthalmoscopy
    The examination of the external and internal structures of the eye with an instrument called an opthalmoscope.
  132. Pachymetry
    The measurement of the thickness of the cornea.
  133. Phacoemulsification
    A method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of the eye.
  134. Photo-Refractive Keratectomy
    A surgical procedure in which a few layers of corneal surface cells are shaved off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia (nearsightedness).
  135. Retinal Photocoagulation
    Surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy.
  136. Slit Lamp Exam or Biomicroscopy
    Examination of the external and internal structures of the eye, using a low power microscope combined with a high intensity light source that can be focused to shine as a slit beam.
  137. Tonometry
    Process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation.
  138. Trabeculectomy
    The surgical excision of a portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocular pressure in persons with severe glaucoma.
  139. Trabeculoplasty
    The surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid (aqueous humor) from the eye's anterior chamber, usually performed under general anesthesia.
  140. OD
    Right eye, ocular dexter
  141. OS
    Left eye, ocular sinister
  142. OU
    Each eye, Oculus Uterque
  143. sc
    Without correction.
  144. Acoustic
    Pertaining to sound or hearing.
  145. Audiogram
    A recording of the faintest sounds an individual is able to hear.
  146. Auditory
    pertaining to the sense of hearing.
  147. Aural
    Pertaining to the ear.
  148. Auriculotemporal
    Pertaining to the ear and the temporal area of the skull.
  149. Baroitis Media
    Inflammation or bleeding of the middle ear caused by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, as in scuba diving or descent of an airplane (especially when one has a cold or an upper respiratory infection).
  150. Cochlear
    Pertaining to s snail-shaped structure within the middle ear.
  151. Labyrinthitis
    Inflammation of the inner ear.
  152. Mastoiditis
    Inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone, usually an extension of a middle ear infection.
  153. Myringoplasty or Tympanoplasty
    Surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss.
  154. Myringotomy or Tympanotomy
    Surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear.
  155. Otalgia or Otodynia
    Pain in the ear, earache.
  156. Otitis Media
    Inflammation of the middle ear.
  157. Otomycosis
    A fungal infection of the external auditory meatus of the ear.
  158. Otorrhea
    Drainage from the ear, usually associated with inflammation of the ear.
  159. Presbycusis
    Loss of hearing due to the natural aging process.
  160. Salpingoscope
    An instrument used to examine the nasopharynx and the eusthachian tube.
  161. Serous
    Pertaining to producing serum.
  162. Stapendectomy
    Surgical removal of the stapes (middle ear) and insertion of a graft and prosthesis.
  163. Tinnitus
    A ringing or tinkling noise heard in the ears, may be a sign of injury to the ear, some disease process or toxic levels of some medications from prolonged use.
  164. Vertigo
    A sensation of spinning around or of having things in the room or area spinning around the person, a result of disturbance of the equilibrium.
  165. Acous/o or Audi/o or Audit/o
  166. Labyrinth/o
    Inner ear.
  167. Myring/o
  168. Ot/o
  169. Tympan/o
  170. Cholesteatoma
    A slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear.
  171. Deafness, Conductive
    Hearing loss caused by the breakdown of the transmission of sound waves through the middle and/or external ear.
  172. Deafness, Sensorineural
    Hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory nerve or the cochlea or to lesions of the 8th cranial nerve (auditory).
  173. Labyrinthitis
    Infection or inflammation of the labyrinth or the inner ear specifically, the three semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid filled chambers and control balance.
  174. Mastoiditis
    Inflammation of the mastoid process, which is usually an acute expansion of an infection in the middle ear (otitis media).
  175. Meniere's Disease
    Chronic inner ear disease in which there is an overaccumulation of endolymph (fluid in the labyrinth) chracterized by recurring episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, feeling of pressure or fullness in the affected ear, and tinnitus, usually unilateral, but occurs bilaterally in about 10-20% of patients.
  176. Otitis Externa or Swimmer's Ear
    Inflammation of the outer or external ear canal. This inflammation is produced from the growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear.
  177. Otitis Media, Acute (AOM) (Challenge Word)
    • Inflammation of the middle ear.
    • A middle ear infection, which predominately affects infants, toddles, and preschoolers.
  178. Serous Otitis Media (SOM)
    A collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube.
  179. Suppurative Otitis Media or Acute Otitis Media
    A purulent collection of fluid in the middle ear, causing the person to experience pain, an elevation in temperature, dizziness, decreased hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus.
  180. Ostosclerosis
    A condition in which the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window, resulting in hearing loss.
  181. Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane
    Rupture of the tympanic membrane or eardrum.
  182. Audiometry
    The process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves.
  183. Otoscopy
    The use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear.
  184. Tuning Fork Test (Rinne Test)
    An examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction.
  185. Tuning Fork Test (Weber Test)
    An examination used to evaluate auditory acuity and to discover whether a hearing deficit is a conductive loss or sensorineural loss.
  186. Otoplasty
    Removal of a portion of ear cartilage to bring the pinna and auricle nearer the head.
  187. Stapedectomy
    Microsurgical removal of the stapes diseased by ostosclerosis, typically under local anesthesia.
  188. Myringotomy or Tympanotomy
    A surgical procedure with insertion of a small ventilation tube introduced into the inferior segment of the tympanic membrane.
  189. Myringoplasty Tympanoplasty
    Surgical repair of the tympanic membrane with a tissue graft after a spontaneous rupture that results in hearing loss.
  190. AD & AS
    • Right ear (Audis dextra)
    • Left ear (Audis Sinistra)
  191. AU
    Each ear (Audis Unitas)