A twitching of the eyelid muscles, may be due to eyestrain or nervous irritability.
Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye, may be caused by a bacterial infection, a viral infection, allergy, or a response to the environment.
Pertaining to the cornea.
Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye.
Inflammation of the lacrimal gland.
Excessive flow of tears.
Eversion of the edge of the eyelid.
A state of normal vision. The eye is at rest and the image is focused directly on the retina.
Inversion of the outermost layers of the sclera.
Esotropia or Crosseyes
An obvious inward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye.
An obvious outward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye, also called walleye.
Pertaining to outside the eye.
One or more spots that appear to drift or "float" across the visual field.
The examination of the fundus of the eye, the base or the deepest part of the eye, with an instrument called an opthalmoscope through a procedure called opthalmoscopy.
Hemianopia or Hemianopsia
Loss of vision, or blindness, in on-half of the visual field.
Inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye.
Inflammation of the iris.
Inflammation of the corneaand the conjunctiva of the eye.
A cone shaped protrusion of the center of the cornea, not accompanied by inflammation.
A fungal growth present on the cornea.
Pertaining to the tears.
The secretion of tears from the lacrimalglands.
Abnormal consrtiction of the pupil of the eye.
An agent that causes the pupil of the eye to constrict.
Abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye.
An agent that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate.
Pertaining to the nose and the lacrimaltear ducts.
Involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye. These "quivering" movements may be from side to side, up and down, or a combination of both.
A medical doctor who specializes in the comprehensive care of the eyes and visual system in the prevention and treatment of eye disease and injury.
Branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye.
Any disease of the eye.
Pertaining to the eyes or to sight.
A health professional who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or for contact lenses.
Is responsible for examination of the eye, and associated structures to determine vision problems. He or she can also prescribe lenses or optical aids.
Pertaining to the eyelid.
Swelling of the opticdisc, visible upon opthalmoscopicexamination of the interior eye.
Softening of the lens of the eye.
Abnormal sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes.
Loss of accommodation for near vision, poor near vision due to the natural aging process.
Pertaining to the pupil of the eye.
Any disease of the retina.
Excision, or removal, of a portion of the sclera of the eye.
An area of depressed vision (blindness) within the usual visual field, surrounded by an area of normal vision.
Inflammation of the uveal tract of the eye, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Pertaining to the vitreous body of the eye.
Hard, horny, also refers to the corneaof the eye.
Nyct/o or Nyctal/o
Nyctalopia (Challenge Word)
Nyctalopia (Challenge Word)
Opt/o or Optic/o
Optic or Optician
Drooping or prolapse.
Hard, also refers to the slceraof the eye.
A refractive error causing light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea or lens.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin.
Occurs when the eyelid partially or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle.
Causes of blindness include trauma, cataracts, glaucoma, nutritional deficiences, trachoma, and onchocerciasis.
Monochromatism (Color Blindness)
Inability to perceive visual colors sharply.
Daltonism: the person is unable to distinguish reds from greens. This is a sex linked inherited disorder.
Achromatic Vision: Person cannot distinguish any color, perceiving only white, gray, and black. This is a defect in the retinal cones or the absence of the retinal cones.
The lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.
Phacoemulsification and Extracapsular Cataract Extraction
Two primary ways to remove a cataract.
A cyst or nodule on the eyelid resulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball.
A disruption of the cornea's surface epithelium commonly caused by an eyelash, a small foreign body, or a scratch from a fingernail.
Occurs as a consequence of long-term or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in which the tissues of the retina experience scarring due to the following:
Abnormal dilation and constriction of vessels.
Abnormal formation of new vessels causing leakage of blood into the vitreous humor.
Turning out or eversion of the eyelash margins (especially the lower eyelid) from the eyeball, leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.
Turning in of the eyelash margins (especially the lower margins), resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye (redness, tearing, burning, and itching).
An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris, typically due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents.
Loss of vision, or blindness in one half of the visual field.
Bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness, swelling, and mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash.
A refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal.
A bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye, resulting from a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury.
Corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect (may be due to dry eyes or ineffective eyelid closure).
Progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macula due to aging. Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), this condition is a common and progressive cause of visual deficiency and permanent reading impairment in the adult over 65 years.
A refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal.
Inadequate vision at night or in faint lighting following reduction in the syntheses of rhodopsin, a compound in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low density light.
Vertical, horizontal, rotary, or mixed rhythmic involuntary movements of the eyes caused by use of alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on the brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development.
A purulent(contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and or cornea in the newborn.
A refractive error occuring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity.
An irregular growth developing as a fold in the conjunctiva, usually on the nasal side of the cornea, that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil.
The partial or complete splitting away of the retina from the pigmented vascular layer called the choroid, interrupting vascular supply to the retina and thus creating a medical emergency.
An opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor.
Presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball.
A defined area in one or both eyes that has a decreased visual function.
Failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye. The most common type of strabismus is nonparalytic strabismus, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship.
An adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery or as a secondary condition of one of the following pathological conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, keratitis, or uveitis.
An infectious eye disease caused chlamydia trachomatis, which is chronic and will lead to blindness without effective treatment.
Inflammation of all or part of the middle vascualr layer of the eye made up of the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.
Surgical transplantation of a donor cornea(cadaver's) into the eye of a recipient, usually under local anesthesia.
A group of tests used in evaluating the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
A recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after stimulation of light.
Surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocularlens implant.
Application of a fluorescein-stained sterile filter paper strip moistened with a few drops of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic solution to the lower cul-de-sac of the eye to visualize a corneal abrasion.
Process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye for evaluation, management, and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures. The examination involves using a gonioprism and a slit-lamp biomicroscope.
Intraocular Lens Implant
The surgical process of cataract extraction and the insertion of an artificial lens in the patient's eye. This restores visual acuity and provides improved depth perception, light refraction, and binocular vision.
Extraction of a small segment of the iris to open an anterior chamber angle and permit the flow of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers, thus relieving the person's intraocularpressure.
Keratoplasty Corneal Grafting
The transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve the vision in the affected eye.
Laser in Situ Keratomileusis
The LASIK procedure is a form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness (myopia).
The examination of the external and internal structures of the eye with an instrument called an opthalmoscope.
The measurement of the thickness of the cornea.
A method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of the eye.
A surgical procedure in which a few layers of corneal surface cells are shaved off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia(nearsightedness).
Surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy.
Slit Lamp Exam or Biomicroscopy
Examination of the external and internal structures of the eye, using a low power microscope combined with a high intensity light source that can be focused to shine as a slit beam.
Process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation.
The surgical excision of a portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocularpressure in persons with severe glaucoma.
The surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid (aqueous humor) from the eye's anterior chamber, usually performed under general anesthesia.
Right eye, ocular dexter
Left eye, ocular sinister
Each eye, Oculus Uterque
Pertaining to sound or hearing.
A recording of the faintest sounds an individual is able to hear.
pertaining to the sense of hearing.
Pertaining to the ear.
Pertaining to the ear and the temporal area of the skull.
Inflammation or bleeding of the middle ear caused by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, as in scuba diving or descent of an airplane (especially when one has a cold or an upper respiratory infection).
Pertaining to s snail-shaped structure within the middle ear.
Inflammation of the inner ear.
Inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone, usually an extension of a middle ear infection.
Myringoplasty or Tympanoplasty
Surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss.
Myringotomy or Tympanotomy
Surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear.
Otalgia or Otodynia
Pain in the ear, earache.
Inflammation of the middle ear.
A fungal infection of the external auditorymeatus of the ear.
Drainage from the ear, usually associated with inflammation of the ear.
Loss of hearing due to the natural aging process.
An instrument used to examine the nasopharynx and the eusthachian tube.
Pertaining to producing serum.
Surgical removal of the stapes (middle ear) and insertion of a graft and prosthesis.
A ringing or tinkling noise heard in the ears, may be a sign of injury to the ear, some disease process or toxic levels of some medications from prolonged use.
A sensation of spinning around or of having things in the room or area spinning around the person, a result of disturbance of the equilibrium.
Acous/o or Audi/o or Audit/o
A slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear.
Hearing loss caused by the breakdown of the transmission of sound waves through the middle and/or external ear.
Hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditorynerve or the cochlea or to lesions of the 8th cranial nerve (auditory).
Infection or inflammation of the labyrinth or the inner ear specifically, the three semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid filled chambers and control balance.
Inflammation of the mastoid process, which is usually an acute expansion of an infection in the middle ear (otitis media).
Chronic inner ear disease in which there is an overaccumulation of endolymph (fluid in the labyrinth) chracterized by recurring episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, feeling of pressure or fullness in the affected ear, and tinnitus, usually unilateral, but occurs bilaterally in about 10-20% of patients.
Otitis Externa or Swimmer's Ear
Inflammation of the outer or external ear canal. This inflammation is produced from the growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear.
Otitis Media, Acute (AOM) (Challenge Word)
Inflammation of the middle ear.
A middle ear infection, which predominately affects infants, toddles, and preschoolers.
Serous Otitis Media (SOM)
A collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitismediaor be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube.
Suppurative Otitis Media or Acute Otitis Media
A purulent collection of fluid in the middle ear, causing the person to experience pain, an elevation in temperature, dizziness, decreased hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus.
A condition in which the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window, resulting in hearing loss.
Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane
Rupture of the tympanic membrane or eardrum.
The process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves.
The use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear.
Tuning Fork Test (Rinne Test)
An examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction.
Tuning Fork Test (Weber Test)
An examination used to evaluate auditoryacuity and to discover whether a hearing deficit is a conductive loss or sensorineural loss.
Removal of a portion of ear cartilage to bring the pinna and auricle nearer the head.
Microsurgical removal of the stapes diseased by ostosclerosis, typically under local anesthesia.
Myringotomy or Tympanotomy
A surgical procedure with insertion of a small ventilation tube introduced into the inferior segment of the tympanic membrane.
Surgical repair of the tympanic membrane with a tissue graft after a spontaneous rupture that results in hearing loss.