WHAP study session

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WHAP study session
2012-03-13 23:17:29

political I vocab
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  1. Hammurabi's Law Code
    first written law codes
  2. public works projects
    used by leaders to provide employment of the population and to validate the leader's power
  3. pastoral nomads
    migratory people who herd animals
  4. courage cultures
    a group of people bound by similar culture and kin groups; could be violent/warlike/tribal.
  5. civilization
    characterized by large cities, monumental architecture and public buildings, complex political organization, written language, specialized labor, advanced art, literature, and long distance trade.
  6. emperor
    ruler of land beyond his/her own land
  7. bureaucracy
    administrative government officials who are not elected who do the work of the government.
  8. dynasty
    family groups that rules a kingdom; a hereditary position
  9. umma
    community of faith in Isalm; crossed tribal boundaries to create a degree amount of political unity.
  10. republic
    government where people elect representatives
  11. aristocracy
    rule by the wealthy landowning elites
  12. Mandate of Heaven
    Chinese dynasties rule at the will of the gods and when it is lost, the dynasty would fall.
  13. Yellow Turban Revolt
    Daoists in Han China who rebel against the weak emperor and self indulgent bureaucracy (they were not successful)
  14. centralized government
    when a government is solidly controlled from one area like an emperor with a well functioning bureaucracy
  15. decentralized government
    when a government is not solidly controlled form one area, but is fragmented possibly into regional states
  16. regionalism
    not much political unity due to diversity or geographical barriers
  17. hegemony
    control over a region socially, economically; cultural and ideological influence by a dominant group.
  18. caliphate
    successors who ruled after Muhammad's death
  19. feudalism
    a political system based on reciprocity emphasizing loyalty
  20. meritocracy
    gaining a position because of education or other specific qualificantion, not because of family position.
  21. stateless society
    African societies organized around kinship and lacking the concentration of politcal power.
  22. tribute
    a tax collected from a weaker power by a stronger power
  23. John Locke
    argued that rulers get power from the people they ule note from heaven, people have the right to rebel if the ruler oversteps his bounds.
  24. xenophobic
    fear of outsiders
  25. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • (1494)
    • the Pope's dicision of the new world. Portugal and Spain.
  26. Battle of Lepanto
    • (1571)
    • the powerful Ottoman navy lost to Philip II's navy of Spain loosening Ottoman control over the eastern Mediterranean
  27. Siege of Vienna
    Ottoman Empire is defeated in its push West into Eastern Europe
  28. janissaries
    young Christian boys who were captured by the Ottoms converted to Islam and trained to be soldiers and bureaucrats
  29. sultan
    top official in the Ottoman Empire
  30. Grand Vizier
    chief administrative official in Abbasid caliphate
  31. Glorious Revolution/Bloodless Revolution
    • 1688
    • After the English Civil War established a constitutional government and limited the power of the king and allowed wealther merchants to participate in the government
  32. salutary neglect
    followed in English colonies; allowed colonies to set up their own structures and run their own affairs in the New World.
  33. vassal
    someone who received land (fief) in return for service
  34. absolutism
    monarchs with total power who passed laws without parliaments and appointed loyal bureaucracies an dprofession armies; used the church to their advantage.
  35. bakufu
    military goevrnment of Japan
  36. Bedouin
    nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula
  37. polis
    a city that functions as a state and rules itself
  38. boyars
    Russian aristocrats who had less power than aristocrats in western Europe
  39. bushi
    regional warriors in Japan who ruled small kingdoms
  40. Justinian Law Codes
    Most famous compilation of Roman law codes
  41. caste system
    used to organize people based on their political power; people's place in society sometimes based on religion
  42. Magna Carta
    • 1215
    • listed the rights of the nobility and the right to counsel led to the creation of Parliament in England; limited the power of the king
  43. Niccolo Machiavelli
    emphasized how to seize and maintain power in his Italian Renaissance work The Prince
  44. White Lotus Society
    secret religion society dedicated to overthrowing the Yuan dynasty; typical of peasants resistance of Mongol rule.