Chapter 1

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TOYOMAMA0118
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141501
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Chapter 1
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2012-03-18 16:27:03
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Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations
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  1. The human species was characterized in the Paleolithic Age by:
    • the ability to communicate with speech
    • the development of simple stone and wooden tools
    • rituals to lessen the fear of death
    • slow population growth
  2. The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone, Age spanned from
    12,000~8000 BCE
  3. The emergence of agriculture, or the Neolithic Revolution, caused:
    • an increase in the specialization of political, economic, and religious functions
    • the ability of humans to settle more permanently in one spot
    • a population explosion
    • the gradual removal of hunters from the agricultural community
  4. The Neolithic Revolution first occurred in
    Middle East
  5. Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools because
    • they made woodworking easier
    • they made superior weapons
    • metal hoes and other tools allowed to work the ground more efficiently
    • they were sharper and more precise

    they were NOT easier for ordinary people to produce in mass at home.
  6. Characteristics that define a civilization:
    • development of cities
    • adaptation of new technology (metal tools)
    • writing systems
    • political units capable of ruling large regions

    NOT: more equality between social classes
  7. The Tigris-Euphrates civilization, Sumeria, produced the first...
    writing system
  8. Egyptian civilization differred from Mesopotamia civilization by stressing...
    more centralized and durable empires.
  9. Which river-valley civilization was characterized by isolation?
    Hwanghe
  10. As the most influencial of the smaller Middle Eastern regional cultures, the Jews were characterized most by
    monotheism
  11. In the Paleolithic Age, hunter-gathers could not support:
    large populations and elaborate societies
  12. One sign of the revolutionary quality of agriculture as a system of production was the
    very slowness of its spread
  13. Most early civilizations were characterized by:
    • the existence of agriculture
    • significant cities
    • writing systems
    • more formal states
  14. The ______, ______, and _______ were examples of smaller Middle Eastern cultures that were capable of surviving and fluorishing when the great empires were weak.
    Phoenicians, Lydians, and Jews
  15. Most of the 2 million-plus years during which our species has existed are described by the term ______.
    Paleolithic/Old Stone Age
  16. The ending of the _____ was a major factor in the formation of the first farming communities, or the emergence of the Neolithic Revolution.
    Ice Age
  17. The Neolithic village, _______, has been elaborately studies by archeologists.
    Catal Huyuk
  18. Most civilizations developed writing, starting with the emergence of _____in the Middle East around 3500 BCE
    cuneiform
  19. It was under the Babylonian ule that King _______ introduced the most famous early code of law
    Hammurabi
  20. Egyptian civilization sprang up in northern Africa, along the _____ River
    Nile
  21. By about 1500 BCE, a line of kings called the ______ ruled over the Hwanghe river-valley civilization.
    Shang
  22. A smaller regional culture called the _______ devised a greatly simplified alphabet with 22 letters around 1300 BCE; this in turn was the ancestor of the Greek and Latin alphabets
    Phoenicians
  23. the largest city to develop along the Indus River was _______.
    Harrappa / Mohenjo Darjo
  24. Beginning in 2700 BCE, the Egyptian pharophs used slave to build the ______.
    pyramids.
  25. All of the following were changes to human societies brought about by the Neolithic Revolution EXCEPT:

    A. The distinction between nomads and settled people became important.
    B. Job specialization.
    C. Women and men grew to have more equal status.
    D. The total human population rapidly increased.
    E. Reliable food supplies increased.
    C. Women and men grew to have more equal status
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Women were important contributors to the agricultural revolution because they were likely the gender who...

    A. owned property
    B. found carrying children on their backs too burdensome
    C. wanted more leisure time
    D. liked farming
    E. gathered edible plants and knew where grains grew
    E. gathered edible plants and knew where grains grew.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following is the best explanation for why the concept of civilization is controversial as an organizing principle of world history?

    A. The concept is too broad to have any meaning
    B. The concept assumes that nomadic people are civilized.
    C. The use of the concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads
    D. The concept ignores the importance of periodization in analyzing world history.
    E. The concept implies that eastern civilization are superior to those in the west.
    C. The use of the concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. All of the following ancient civilizations were centered around a river valley EXCEPT:

    A. Mesopotamia
    B. Chavin
    C. Indus Valley
    D. China
    E. Egypt
    B. Chavin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following most accurately compares the government structures of early Mesopotamia and Egypt?

    A. The governments of both civilizations were highly decentralized.
    B. Overall, Mesopotamian government was characterized by strong city-states, and Egypt was ruled by divine kingship.
    C. Mesopotamia had a highly developed bureaucracy; Egypt did not.
    D. In both civilizations power was concentrated in the hands of a king that was believed to be a god.
    E. Although priests were powerful in both societies, their authority was generally separated from the political power of the kings.
    B. Overall, Mesopotamian government was characterized by strong city-states, and Egypt was ruled by divine kingship.
  30. Which of the following best describes the basis of the ruler's authority in Zhou China?

    A. The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people.
    B. The ruler was believed to be a god himself, and so his authority could not be questioned.
    C. The ruler depended heaviliy on his staff, so the real authority lay in the hands of the bureaucrats.
    D. The ruer was selected by a handful of elite aristocrats who also had the authority to remove him office.
    E. The ruler was a military ledaer who held power as long as he was victorious on the battlefield.
    A. The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of folowing were common phenomena in early Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and the Indus River Valley?

    I. a complex writing system
    II. extensive irrigation
    III. long distance trade
    IV. centralization of civilization around navigable rivers

    A. I and III only
    B. I and II only
    C. I, II, III and IV
    D. II, III, and IV only
    E. I, II, and III only
    C. I, II, III and IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The "forbidden city" reflects the political leader's status as...

    A. the son of Heaven
    B. the head of the paterfamilias
    C. a tyrant
    D. a god (divine ruler)
    E. a superior man, but with no connections to spirituality
    A. the son of Heaven
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. All of the following commonly characterize the development of civilization EXCEPT:

    A. a written language
    B. long distance trade
    C. large cities that dominate the countryside around them
    D. public building projects
    E. increasing equality among all citizens
    E. increasing equality among all citizens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Confucianism encourages its followers to

    A. learn from foreigners better ways to excel
    B. follow ethical rules that promote harmony and order
    C. experiment with new food crops
    D. seek principles of sciences
    E. believe that their rulers were not in any way divine
    B. follow ethical rules that promote harmony and order
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. All of the following events happened at about the same time (1200 BCE) EXCEPT:

    A. Egypt was significantly weakened by a series of outside attacks.
    B. The Zhou dynasty fell, and the Warring States period began.
    C. The Hittite empire collapsed.
    D. Major trade centers in Western Asia were destroyed.
    E. The mycenaean civilization was destroyed
    B. The Zhou dynasty fell, and the Warring States period began.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following factors best explains why the four events referred to in #12 happened about the same time?

    A. a common tendency to rely too much on the authority of one ruler
    B. destruction by a common attacker, the Huns
    C. major environmental changes in all affected areas
    D. similar life cycles of the four civilizations
    E. interdependence
    E. interdependence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The continuing importance of written language in Chinese culture may be traced to its early use for

    A. trade with nomads to the west of the river valley settlements
    B. astronomical calculations that determine the planting and harvest seasons
    C. issuing mandates from the emperor to subject warlords
    D. organizing the political bureaucracy
    E. divination; communication with the ancestors
    E. divination; communication with the ancestors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The spread of Greek culture all over the eastern Mediterranean and the former Persian Empire is known as..

    A. Delianism
    B. classicazation
    C. Zoroastrianism
    D. hellenization
    E. Olympiazation
    D. hellenization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following civilizations had to acclimate to existing in a mountainous area with a narrow, dry coastline on one side of the mountain range and a rain forest on the other side?

    A. Chavin
    B. Persia
    C. Nubian
    D. Olmec
    E. Indus
    A. Chavin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Shifting cultivation was generally practiced

    A. around fertile river valleys
    B. in rain forests and their peripheries
    C. in mountainous areas
    D. along dry coastal areas
    E. in grassy plains
    B in rain forests and their peripheries
  41. The polis is most closely associated with which of the following societies/civilizations?

    A. The Mauryan Empire
    B. Athens
    C. Han China
    D. Babylonian
    E. Persian Empire
    B Athens
  42. All of the following ar accurate comparisons of Athens and Sparta EXCEPT:

    A. The Spartans placed the military at the center of their society; Athens generally did not.
    B. The Athenians emphasized the importance of poetry, art, and philosophy; the Spartans did not.
    C. Spartan women did not have as many freedoms as did Athenian women.
    D. Both Sparta and Athens dominated the countryside aorund them and were two of the largest city states.
    E. Sparta demanded more subordination of its male citizens to the demands of the state
    C. Spartan women did not have as many freedoms as did Athenian women.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. All of the following are important principles of Greek culture that had wide influence on later civilizations EXCEPT:

    A. an interest in political theory that sought the best forms of government
    B. celebration of human achievement, includinf the idea human form
    C. new religious concepts that redefined the nature of god(s)
    D. a philosophical and scientific tradition that emphasized the use of logic
    E. an emphasis on the importance of human effort and ability to shape future events
    C. new religious concepts that redefined the nature of god(s)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. All of the following are accurate descriptions of trade along the Silk Road before 600 CE EXCEPT:

    A. The Silk Route linked China to the Mediterranean world via Central Asia, Iran, and Mesopotamia, Iran.
    B. Trade along the Silk Road networkd was stimulated by Roman demands for luxury goods such as silk.
    C. Silk Road trade did not significantly affect the lifestyles of Turkic nomads, the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia.
    D. The breeding of hybrid camels developed along with the burgeoning Silk Road trade.
    E. The Chinese traded silk, pottery, and paper for horses, alfalfa, and a variety of crops.
    C. Silk Road trade did not significantly affect the lifestyles of Turkic nomads, the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which of the following technologies most directly contributed to increased overland travel starting around 300 BCE?

    A. wheeled chariots
    B. camel saddles
    C. iron plows
    D. stirrups
    E. horse collars
    B. camel saddles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India?

    A. The Romans were economically more self-sufficient than the Han or Gupta, so they had no long-distance trade to cushion their fall.
    B. Roman emperors had more power than did Han or Gupta emperors, so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire.
    C. Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with.
    D. Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/philosophical traditions to provide continuity.
    E. The barbarian attacks destroyed more phyusical property and vital public works in Rome.
    D. Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/philosophical traditions to provide continuity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which sailing technology allowe the sailors on th Indian Ocean to travel long distances by taking advantage of monsoon winds?

    A. the lateen sail
    B. the caravel
    C. the wooden rudder
    D. lightweight masts
    E. the swuare sail
    A. the lateen sail
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of the following was one of the most valuable commodities added to established trading systems by the trans-Saharan trade?

    A. copper
    B. spices
    C. manufactured goods
    D. salt
    E. pottery
    D. salt
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Why did the majority of the Chinese population during the Han dynasty live in eastern China?

    A. The best farmland was concentrated along rivers in eastern China.
    B. The best Buddhist centers were in eastern China.
    C. They watned acces to sea trade and its accompanying wealth.
    D. They were more isolated form invasion from nomads peoples there.
    E. The Tibetans held control in the west, and they did not welcome Chinese settlements in their area.
    A. The best farmland was concentrated along rivers in eastern China.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The people who transported goods across the Sahara and dominated trade across the desert for centuries were the...

    A. Berbers
    B. Bantu
    C. Bedoins
    D. Malays
    E. Ghanans
    A. Berbers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following characteristics contribtued most directly to a tendency toward political disunity in ancient India?
    • A. weak religious traditions
    • B. lack of foreign trade
    • C. weak social structure
    • D. lack of strong political leaders
    • E. diverse geographical features
  52. Buddhists believe that a state of grace or nirvana may be reached by...

    A. renouncing asceticism
    B. following the eightfold path
    C. changing one's karma
    D. following the moral duties of one's caste
    E. being reincarnated as a Brahman
    B. following the eightfold path
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. What central feature of Hinduism did Buddhism reject?

    A. the caste system
    B. reincarnation
    C. the importance of ethical decision making
    D. union with the universal spirit as a major goal
    E. use of missionaries to spread the religion
    A. the caste system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. "He traveled throughout Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece, and found that many non-Jews were interested in the teachings of Christianity. He redirected his effrts toward these gentiles, and set up strong Christian communities all over the eatern Mediterranean"

    The quote above describes...
    A. Jesus
    B. Paul
    C. Mark
    D. Peter
    E. John
    B. Paul
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Which of the following in a significant difference between early Christianity and early Judaism?

    A. Christianity did not accept the spirtual authority of the Torah, which expressed basic beliefs of Judaism.
    B. Christianity put more emphasis on missionary work, converting others to the religion.
    C. The Roman Empire sought to eradicate Christianity but not Judaism.
    D. Judaism was originally polytheistic, Christianity was not.
    E. In general, early believers in Judaism were more persecuted by polytheistic people than were early believers in Christianity.
    B. Christianity put more emphasis on missionary work, converting others to the religion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Which of the following belief systems have their origins in China during the classical era (100 BCE~500 CE) ?

    I. Buddhism
    II. Daoism
    III. Legalism
    IV. Confucianism

    A. I, II, and IV only
    B. I, II, III, and IV
    C. I and IV only
    D. II, III, and IV only
    E. II and IV only
    D. II, III and IV only
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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