Immunoassays & Automation

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  1. Number of test preformed by an analyzer.
    Test repertoire
  2. Total number of different tests available on the analyzer.
    Total test repertoire
  3. Analyzers that can perform multiple tests at any one time.
    Random access
  4. Sample reaction performed in individual compartments
    Sample and rgt contained in seperate cuvettes
    Runs multiple tests on multiple samples
    Discrete Analyzers
  5. Same test performed simultaneously on all samples
    Batch analyzer
  6. Continuosly pump liquids through system of continuous tubing
    Samples introduced in sequential manner & each sample flows through same rxn path
    Air bubbles introduced in line to seperate samples from reagents
    Continuous Flow Analyzer
  7. Uses force from centrifugation to transfer and contain liquids in seperate cuvets
    Measurements taken @ perimeter of spinning rotor
    Centrifugal analysis
  8. Minumum time required to obtain result after initial sampling
    Dwell Time
  9. Maximum number of samples or tests that can be processed in an hour
    Number of samples processed/hr times the number of tests performed on each specimen
    Analyzer throughput
  10. Time it takes from when the sample is collected until the results are reported.
    Turn-around-time (TAT)
  11. Accounts for 30-50% of testing in many labs
    TAT(turn around time) < 1hr
    STAT testing
  12. Give some advantages of automation.
    • Increase number of tests performed
    • Minimizes variation in test results
    • Minimizes laboratory errors
    • expands test menu
    • reduces TAT
  13. What are 4 laboratory processes used in automation?
    • test ordering
    • sample collection
    • sample transport
    • front-end processing
    • sample analysis
    • result aquisition
    • reportinf of results
    • archiving and sample disposal
  14. Name the chemistry analyzer operations.
    • Sample identification
    • Determine test(s) to perform
    • Reagent systems and delivery
    • Specimen measurement and delivery
    • Chemical reaction phase
    • Measurement phase
    • Signal processing and data handling
    • Send result(s) to LIS
  15. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    This is usually done by reading a bar code. This information can also be entered in manually.
    Process where majority of errors occur in lab
    Sample identification
  16. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    The LIS communicates to the analyzer which tests(s) have been ordered.
    Determine test(s) to perform
  17. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    A small aliquot of the sample is introduced into the reaction cuvet.
    Specimen measurement and delivery
  18. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    The sample and reagents are are mixed and incubated.
    Chemical reaction phase
  19. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    Optical reading may be initiated before or after all reagents have been added.
    Measurement phase
  20. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    The analyte concentration is estimated from a calibration curve that is stored in the analyzer.
    Signal processing and data handling
  21. Name the chemistry analyzer operation based of the descrition:
    The analyzer communicates results for the ordered tests to the LIS
    Send result(s) to LIS
  22. What are two methods used in mixing?
    • Stirring paddles
    • Rapid start stop action of rxn tray
  23. Aspirates doulble volume of sample and pipets directly into 4 test channels @ one time
    Double sample probes
  24. Interfering substances in sample seperated out from rxn mixture
  25. Delay time to allow the reaction to take place, most reactions occur at 37o C
  26. rxn occurs for a predetermined amount of time
    Reaction time
  27. fully automated, random acces immunoassay analyzer
    uses chemiluminescence
    Avida Centaur
  28. analog-to-digital convertor
    converts voltage or current to a digital form that can be processed by computer
  29. Allows results to be transferred directly from analyzer to laboratory computer system
    Interface with LIS system
  30. What 6 things need to be considered when choosing an automated analyzer?
    • Determine what type of analyzer is needed
    • Cost of analyzer
    • Calculate total cost of consumables & total cost/test
    • Determine mode of acquisition
    • Determine number full time employee's needed
    • Analytical capability of analyzer
  31. What are disadvantages to automation?
    • Substantial financial investment
    • Cost can range between 1-3 million
    • Amount of open space
    • Volume of testing must justify initial costs
  32. First fully automated clinical lab installed by Dr. Sasaki & colleagues
    Japanese "black box" lab
  33. Evoke an immune response, either cellular or humoral.
    Contain one or more antigenic determinants (epitopes)
  34. Large proteins that bind specifically with Ag via F(ab) region
    produced by B-lymphocytes
  35. Attraction or force that causes to substances to unite
    Between Ag & Ab
Card Set
Immunoassays & Automation
Chem test #3
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