DIG3025

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Author:
kem10e
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141562
Filename:
DIG3025
Updated:
2012-04-24 01:00:43
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History Theory Graphic Design Midterm
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History and Theory of Graphic Design Midterm
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  1. Why is the Hangul writing system called “scientific”?
    Hangul is considered scientific because the written characters of the consonants signify the structure of the mouth when speaking Korean and the vowels are signified by dots.
  2. What were the Greek’s visual modifications to the Phoenician writing system?
    The Greeks added vowels and geometric structure to the Phoenician alphabet. They used a baseline; a set of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal strokes; and started writing from left to right (boustrophedon).
  3. What was the important cultural function of bone and shell script (chiaku-wen) to the ancient Chinese?
    Bone and shell script was closely bound to the art of divination, an effort to foretell future events through communication with the gods or long-dead ancestors.
  4. Why Durer’s image of the rhinoceros looks so strange?
    The image looks so strange because the image was based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist. Durer had never actually seen a rhinoceros.
  5. What is the significance of Stephen Daye to printing history?
    Stephen Daye was the first British North American printer.
  6. What was the Romaine du Roi?
    A Roman typeface developed in France for explicit use of the royal press and King Louis XIV.
  7. What did the technology of the “half-tone” enable?
    The invention of "half-tone" allowed newspapers to print photographs. It was the first time photographs were mass produced.
  8. What were the ars moriendi and what technology was used
    to make them?
    Ars moriendi (the art of death) were propagandistic block-books created by the church with advice on how to face death. These books were creating using woodblock printing.
  9. What is the value of written communication to a society?
    Having a writing system allows for organizing society (written laws), commerce, historical records, and recording stories.
  10. What are the three languages inscribed on the Rosetta stone and what is artifact’s significance?
    The three languages inscribed on the Rosetta Stone are Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, Demotic script, and Ancient Greek. The stone provided a key to understanding the Ancient Egyptian language and therefore their history and culture.
  11. What are the advantages of an alphabet over earlier writing systems?
    Alphabetic systems created 20 to 30 simple characters that signified sounds made by the human mouth; unlike earlier visual language systems which had hundreds of characters and little to no connection to spoken language.
  12. Why were playing cards significant to literacy in Europe?
    Once woodblock printing became popular, playing cards became available to the masses. This allowed for everyone to begin to understand symbol recognition, sequencing, and logical deduction. Which eventually led to more literate people.
  13. What was the most noted quality of Nicoloas Jensen’s typography?
    Jenson constructed the first Roman typeface that were based on upright calligraphic styles.
  14. What two advances in printing are attributed to John Baskerville?
    Baskerville developed a technique which produced a smoother whiter paper. He also pioneered a completely new style of typography adding wide margins and leading between each line.
  15. What is the significance of the Diamond Sutra, dating from the year 868?
    The Diamond Sutra is the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book.
  16. What were the various technologies Gutenberg brought together to create a printing press which used moveable type? When and where did this occur?
    Gutenberg created an alloy, oil-based ink, and moveable type but adapted the already existing presses of wine and cheese to create his printing press. He finished creating his press around 1450 in Mainz, Germany.
  17. What are the differences between woodblock relief printing and
    copperplate engraving as printing technologies?
    Woodblock relief printing is a process in which you are carving into a block of wood leaving a raised image that can be inked and printed. Copperplate engraving involves etching an image into a copperplate so that ink will be pressed into the incisions and then damp paper will be place on top to receive the printed image.
  18. What is the significance of the terms “bones, meat, blood and muscle” as they relate to Chinese calligraphy?
    • In relation to Chinese calligraphy,
    • Bones: Size
    • Meat: Proportion
    • Blood: Ink Texture
    • Muscle: Spirit
  19. Who founded the Aldine Press? What was its motto? Be able to recognize its trademark.
    • The Aldine Press was created by Aldus Manutius. Its motto was "Festina lente" (make haste slowly).
  20. Why is there only one person seen in an otherwise deserted street scene in the first know photograph of a person?
    The person photographed was having his shoes shined and therefore was sitting there through the entire exposure time.
  21. What are the two theories Meggs sets forth for how the Chinese discovered printing?
    • 1. The use of engraved seals to make identification imprints evolved into printing.
    • 2. The early Chinese practice of making inked rubbings from inscriptions craved in stone evolved into printing.
  22. What are the names of at least three private presses from the Arts and Crafts period?
    • The Kelmscott Press
    • Essex House Press
    • Dove Press
    • Ashendene Press
    • Eragny Press
  23. What did John Ruskin think was essential to a person’s work?
    Joy
  24. What import from the east greatly influenced Art Nouveau poster design?
    Ukiyo-e art from Japan.
  25. Which Art Nouveau illustrator’s drawings were banned due to their unapologetic eroticism?
    Aubrey Beardsley
  26. Who created the illustrations of women with hair and other elements described as “noodles and Spaghetti”?
    Alphonse Mucha
  27. Who brought the Art Nouveau style to the Americas and was sometimes dismissed as “the American Beardsley”?
    Will Bradley
  28. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Clasical (300-400AD) because:
    • - Large image/Centered/Red outline
    • - One column/Same margins
    • - Roman Rustica text/All capitols
  29. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Celtic (600 AD) because:
    • - Super detailed/Geometric/Knot-work/"Carpet Pages"/Beasts
    • - Dimenuendo layout
    • - "Insular" script
  30. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Carolingian (800AD) because:
    • - Borders/Painterly
    • - Miniscules
  31. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Spanish because:
    • - Registers/More imagistic/Flat color
    • - Figures have strange eyes
  32. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Gothic (1200AD~) because:
    • - Monsters/Flat picture plans/Expressionistic/Attenuated figures
    • Two colums/Grid
    • - Textura or Black lettering
  33. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Judaic because:
    • - Not framed/Looser
    • - Blocks and Framed text
    • - Hebrew
  34. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Islamic because:
    • - Geometric/Modular/More precise/No figures
  35. Which type of manuscript is this?
    • Late Medieval (1300AD) because:
    • - Realistic/Shading and modeling/Atmospheric perspective
    • - Black lettering
    • 1. Apex
    • 2. Serif
    • 3. Bowl
    • 4. Finial
    • 5. Counter
    • 6. Descender
    • 7. Cap height
    • 8. X-height
    • 9. Baseline
    • 10. Descender line
    • 11. Stem
    • 12. Spur
    • 13. Loop
    • 14. Ear
    • 15. Ascender
    • 16. Arm
    • 17. Crossbar
    • 18. Ascender height
  36. Which typeface is this?
    • "Egyptian"
    • - aka "Antique" or "slab-serif"
    • - slab like rectangular serifs and even stroke weight, with short ascenders and desenders
  37. Which typeface is this?
    • Tuscan
    • - highly variable in form
    • - extended serifs and curves
    • - characterized by bulges, cavities, and ornaments
  38. Which typeface is this?
    • Old Style
    • - greater differences between thick and thin strokes
    • - sharper in appearance, more refined
    • - serifs on ascenders were more wedge shaped
  39. Which typeface is this?
    • Modern
    • - extreme differences between thick and thin strokes
    • - vertical stress, long and fine serifs, with minimal brackets
    • A. Punch
    • B. Matrix
    • C. Type Mold
  40. Korean hangul
  41. Chinese hanzi
  42. Sumerian cuneiform
  43. Egyptian hieroglyphic
  44. Classical Greek
  45. Arts and Crafts Illustration vs. Victorian Illustration
    • Victorian Era
    • - Nostalgic
    • - Very elaborate and swirly
    • Arts and Crafts Movement
    • - simple forms and often applied medieval

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