World Civil EXAM

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samanthaburnham
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World Civil EXAM
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2012-03-19 18:57:04
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  1. Why did Russia, the self-proclaimed protector of Orthodox Christianity, not intervene when the Austro-Hungarians annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908?
    A. Russia hoped that Serbian resistance to the annexations would weaken Austria-Hungary, making a later intervention more effective.
    B. The Russians had been weakened by the 1905 Revolution and by their war with Japan.
    C. The Russians had tired of their responsibility to intervene on behalf of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
    D. Germany had sent a secret communiqué to Russia's tsar, Nicholas II, warning him not to intervene.
    E. The Russians knew they could not mobilize fast enough to meet the armies of Austria-Hungary's ally, Germany.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which was a result of the Second Balkan War?
    A. The Ottoman Empire was finally dismantled, with its territories going to Russia and Greece.
    B. The Turks made a triumphant return, extending the Ottoman Empire to its pre-1908 borders.
    C. Russia, taking advantage of instability in the region, annexed Romania and Bulgaria.
    D. Bulgaria lost most of the territory it had gained in the First Balkan War to Serbia.
    E. Serbia was defeated by an alliance of Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. When Germany realized that it could not restrain Austria from attacking Serbia, what major strategy did it enact first?
    A. It decided to send troops to the eastern front to fight the Russians.
    B. It decided to launch a lightning attack against France.
    C.It decided to follow Italy in declaring neutrality.
    D. It attacked and annexed Belgium.
    E. It declared an end to the Triple Alliance.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What were the years for World War I?
    A. 1939-1945
    B. 1914-1918
    C. 1917-1922
    D. 1914-1922
    E. 1911-1917
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Why did the nations entering into World War I assume the war would be over soon, instead of dragging on for four years?
    A. Most nations assumed Germany and Austria-Hungary would capitulate, not wishing to fight a war on two fronts.
    B. Most of the nations had not been in a major military engagement in 50 years and knew little about the chaotic reality of combat.
    C. Count Leopold von Berchtold had promised decisive action against the Serbian terrorists to forestall Russian intervention.
    D. They based their views on previous wars, especially the Bismarckian wars of the 1860s.
    E. New advances in technology promised faster, more decisive battles.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of these European leaders was NOT a participant in the Versailles Peace Conference?
    A. Kaiser William II
    B. Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando
    C. Prime Minister David Lloyd George
    D. President Woodrow Wilson
    E.Premier Georges Clemenceau
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The League of Nations was the first systematic and comprehensive effort to create
    A. an international organization that could govern individual nations
    B. a balance of power among the feuding European nations
    C. a tribunal where international war crimes could be tried
    D. an international community that would diminish the sovereignty of hostile countries
    E. an organization designed to prevent war and promote peace
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. What was the "Polish corridor" created by the League of Nations following World War I?
    A. a strip of land placed under League jurisdiction to guarantee free access from Poland to the city of Danzig B. Territory that guaranteed Polish access to the Black Sea
    C. a demilitarized zone running along the northern boarder of Czechoslovakia
    D. Territory that separated East Prussia from Germany and gave Poland access to the sea
    E. a program established by former Allied nations to funnel food and supplies between Germany and East Prussia
    D.
  9. Which of the following was NOT a penalty imposed on Germany following World War I?
    A. to dismantle its military aircraft
    B. to submit the kaiser for trial
    C.to turn over its merchant fleet
    D. to pay France's total costs for the war
    E.to reduce its standing army to no greater than 100,000
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which treaty between the Allies and Central Powers recognized the nationalist movements of the Czechoslovakians, Polish and southern Slavs?
    A. The Treaty of Sèvres
    B. The Treaty of Trianon
    C. The Treaty of Versailles
    D. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    E. The Treaty of St. Germain
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Why did some of the Allies call for a cancellation of all war debts?
    A. They argued that paying the debts would prevent postwar economic growth.
    B. All the countries with the exception of the U.S. had declared bankruptcy.
    C. They argued that if Germany couldn't pay its reparations, they wouldn't be able to pay their inter-Allied debts.
    D. They argued that the Bolsheviks' renunciation of the tsar's debts also freed them from responsibility.
    E. They argued that all the debts had been poured into a common pool to secure victory.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which factors did NOT contribute to the breakdown of the world economy?
    A. population decline
    B. declining agricultural prices
    C. protectionist tariffs
    D. the refusal of U.S. and British creditors to extend loans
    E. expansion of international free trade
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What happened on Black Thursday, October 29, 1929? A.Mussolini's forces swarmed into Rome, prompting King Victor Emmanuel III to transfer power to the National Fascist party.
    B. The U.S. stock market crashed.
    C. Nazi sympathizers vandalized the shops and synagogues of German Jews.
    D. Japan and Russia began a bloody war at Nomonhan that eventually led to a neutrality pact between the two nations.
    E. Japan launched a secret attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
    B.
  14. By 1932, what percentage of the U.S. workforce was unemployed?
    A. 10 percent
    B. 50 percent
    C. 33 percent
    D. 87 percent
    E. 25 percent
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. What did the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 do?
    A. It set up a process by which increases in the tariffs imposed by any trading partner were automatically matched by tariffs in the U.S.
    B. It deliberately devalued U.S. dollars in order to increase exports.
    C. It discouraged European automobile imports to stimulate the growth of Ford's factories.
    D. It increased the value-added duty to 50 percent on many agricultural and manufactured imports.
    E. It tripled the tariffs imposed on tobacco imports to help Southern farmers.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which country in Eastern Europe had the greatest potential for a successful democratic government following World War I?
    A. Latvia
    B. Poland
    C. Romania
    D. Lithuania
    E. Czechoslovakia
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What were the objectives of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal?
    A. relief, recovery and reform
    B. national self-sufficiency and a strong defense E.deflation, tariffs and political isolationism
    C. relief, recovery and redistribution of income
    D. internal reform and international investment
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. What school of thought considered human beings as analogous to machines mechanically responding to stimuli?
    A. foundationalism
    B. impressionism
    C. rationalism
    D. behaviorism
    E. psychoanalysis
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following is NOT an example of the break from Romanticism in music and the visual arts?
    A. Arnold Schoenberg's use of atonality, the absence of any fixed key
    B. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
    C. Igor Stravinsky's use of polytonality, striking several keys simultaneously
    D. Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
    E. Georgio de Chirico's use of primitive art
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Who was associated with the Dada movement that stressed irrationality and anti-traditionalism?
    A. Edgar Degas
    B. Marcel Duchamp
    C. Pierre-Auguste Renoir
    D. Louis Sullivan
    E. Ernest Rutherford
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. During the nineteenth century, which two countries competed to expand their influences into the Balkan holdings of the Ottoman Empire?
    A. Austria and Russia
    B. Serbia and Greece
    C. Austria and Britain
    D. France and Britain
    E. Hungary and France
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What incident on June 28, 1914 sparked World War I? A. assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    B. Serbian invasion of Bulgaria
    C. sinking of the Lusitania
    D. execution of Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip
    E. deployment of Serbian troops along the Bosnian border
    A.
  23. Which countries made up the Central Powers by the end of 1914?
    A. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey
    B. France, Britain, and Russia
    C. Germany, Italy, and Japan
    D. Germany and Austria-Hungary
    E. France, Britain, and the United States


    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. World War I became a war of ________, meaning neither side was able to win a decisive battle; rather, they kept fighting until one side or the other gave up.
    A. equal hostilities
    B. zero sum gain
    C. attrition
    D. total annihilation
    E. indecision
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which French fortress was the scene of a key battle on the western front resulting in the death of 700,000 soldiers?
    A. Normandy
    B. Anschluss
    C. Verdun
    D. Somme
    E. Versailles
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following promises had NOT been made to the Allied nations to secure their help in the war?
    A. Russia would take over the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits and Constantinople.
    B. Britain and France would divide Iraq and Syria into respective spheres of influence.
    C. Germany would retain Alsace-Lorraine.
    D. Italy would gain the Adriatic sea.
    E. Japan would keep Kiaochow in China.
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What was the central concept behind the Treaty of Versailles?
    A. The nationalist movements of Czechs, Poles, and southern Slavs would be recognized.
    B. Austria-Hungary was responsible for the war.
    C. Germany was responsible for the war.
    D. No blame would be assigned for the war and participating countries would pay reparations as arbitrated through the League of Nations.
    E. The League of Nations would have the authority to govern the Balkans to prevent future hostilities.
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. How did the Paris peace negotiators respond to Russian overtures to address prewar debts and border conflicts? A. They were embraced as the first official business of the League of Nations.
    B. They were generally ignored due to anti-Bolshevik sentiments.
    C. They were embraced by the United States but rejected by the anti-Bolshevik leaders of France and Britain.
    D. They were acknowledged only on the condition that the Bolsheviks step down from power.
    E. They were acknowledged but not addressed by the Paris delegates because other issues took priority.
    B.
  29. The economic problems that haunted Europe following the war include all of the following EXCEPT
    A. agricultural underproduction.
    B. high national debts.
    C. transformation of a wartime to a peacetime economy.
    D. demobilization of millions of soldiers to domestic workers.
    E. protectionism.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What radical change occurred in the United States' economic relationship with Europe as a result of World War I?
    A. The U.S. saw its prewar debt increase $7 billion as a result of wartime borrowing.
    B. The U.S. saw its prewar debt erased when the Allied powers agreed to cancel all war debts in 1919.
    C. Many European nations demanded payment of U.S. prewar debt to help pull them out of economic decline. D. The U.S. saw its prewar debt remain even though the Allied powers cancelled all war debts, including $10 billion owed to the U.S.
    E. The U.S. went from a debtor nation owing $3.75 billion to a creditor nation being owed more than $10 billion.
    E.
  31. Why did French troops march into the German district of the Ruhr in 1923?
    A. Unemployed German soldiers had turned to looting along the French border.
    B. Germany had refused to participate in the reparations program following the Treaty of Versailles.
    C. France saw Germany's postwar weakness as an opportunity to annex the Rhineland.
    D. Germany had defaulted on some of its reparations obligations in 1922.
    E. French troops were sent to shut down the Reichsbank which was printing millions of German marks to devalue its reparations payments.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which term defines the goal among European nations of accomplishing total economic self-sufficiency?
    A. totalitarianism
    B. monarchy
    C. isolationism
    D. autarky
    E. plutarchy
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following is NOT identified as one of the causes of the great U.S. stock market crash?
    A. dishonest investors
    B. focus on short-term gains rather than long-term stability
    C. overspeculation in the stock market
    D. removal of the gold standard
    E. loss of investor confidence in the upward market trend
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. What event ended the downturn in the world economy following World War I?
    A. creation of the World Bank
    B. U.S. New Deal
    C. World War II
    D. nations following the U.S. and abandoning the gold standard
    E. abandonment of inter-Allied war debts
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is NOT an example of the popular cultural products that many working and lower middle-class citizens used to escape their political and economic hardships?
    A. Model T automobiles
    B. Dime novels
    C. radio
    D. public art galleries
    E. movies
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. In the wake of bitter labor disputes and unemployment, Ramsay MacDonald formed the first Labour government in Britain and became the first ________ prime minister.
    A. Independent
    B. Conservative
    C. fascist
    D. socialist
    E. Liberal
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which was NOT accomplished under French Prime Minister Léon Blum and his Popular Front government? A. higher wages and collective bargaining rights
    B. 40-hour work week
    C. improved cooperation with the Italian government
    D. improved cooperation with the French Communists E. extended control over the Bank of France
    C.
  38. Whose work in physics upset the Newtonian views of the universe?
    A. Georgio de Chirico
    B. Albert Einstein
    C. Ernest Rutherford
    D. Ivan Pavlov
    E. Max Planck
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which was an influential school of functional art and architecture inspired by Walter Gropius's 1914 exhibition hall in Cologne?
    A. the German Nationalist Institute
    B. the Wright Prairie School
    C. the Chicago School
    D. the Institute of Industrial Design
    E. the Bauhaus
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Before 1914 many composers had begun to rebel against
    A. abstract lyricism.
    B. Modernism.
    C. Cubism.
    D. Traditionalism.
    E. lyrical Romanticism.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Why was Serbia so outraged at the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to World War I?
    A. They incorporated more Slavs into the Habsburg domain.
    B. The empire was at war with Russia.
    C. Count Izvolskii was a poor diplomat.
    D. Austria-Hungary refused to stand up to France.
    E. Austria-Hungary granted Macedonia its independence.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which two nations were fighting for dominance in the Balkans, mobilizing the continent to war?
    A. France and Russia
    B. Austria-Hungary and Russia
    C. Austria-Hungary and France
    D. Russia and Germany
    E. Germany and France
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What did the Schlieffen plan advise?
    A. the mobilization of the German army months prior to war
    B. Germany's military support of Austria-Hungary
    C. a lightning war against Russia before confronting France
    D. a lightning war against France before confronting Russia
    E. invasion of neutral Belgium
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Why did most people in Europe believe that World War I would end quickly?
    A. They were comparing this war to Bismarck's wars of the 1860's.
    B. Europeans ignored the precedent set by the American Civil War.
    C. Military officers held false hopes because they were inexperienced.
    D. With so many men mobilized, a few decisive battles would be all that it would take.
    E. Many felt Europe was too technologically advanced for the war to be lengthy.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which of the following did the European powers actually anticipate prior to World War I?
    A. The crisis would begin in the Balkans.
    B. Trench warfare would become the new precedent. C. Russia would be quick to mobilize.
    D. Single battles would claim hundreds of thousands of lives.
    E. Germany would take Paris.
    D.
  46. Which of the following battles introduced the first use of the tank?
    A. Verdun
    B. Marne
    C. Somme
    D. Jutland
    E. Gallipoli
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. By the end of 1916,
    A. a strong sense of patriotism swept through Europe.
    B. trench warfare had begin to develop.
    C. a desire for peace consumed Europe.
    D. the United States had joined the war.
    E. Ferdinand Foch had begun a counterattack.
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Who sought to NOT victimize the defeated Germans? A. Woodrow Wilson
    B. Ferdinand Foch
    C. Vittorio Orlando
    D. Georges Clemenceau
    E. David Lloyd George
    A.
  49. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the League of Nations?
    A. The Council was the most important component of the League.
    B. Wilson compromised on other points to gain support for it.
    C. The League was focused on peacekeeping.
    D. America was the first country to ratify the organization.
    E. It was the first attempt to create an organization dedicated to preventing war.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following was a central component to the Treaty of Versailles?
    A. Germany was responsible for the war.
    B. The League of Nations must be passed.
    C. Germany no longer had the right to self-govern.
    D. War reparations must be paid in full.
    E. The kaiser must be tried for his offenses.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following led to the crash of America's stock market?
    A. insufficient speculation
    B. lack of debt payments from Germany
    C. a stagnant American economy
    D. lack of debt payments from England
    E. shortsighted rush for profit
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. During the interwar period,
    A. became most popular through comic strips.
    B. did not produce significant technological advances.
    C. mass culture became more highbrow.
    D. was represented in art galleries and concert halls.
    E. offered escape from everyday life.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following did British politics lack in the interwar period?
    A. support from its colonies
    B. support from British
    C. strong political leaders
    D. forward-thinking programs
    E. citizens stability in government
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the New Deal?
    A. The main objectives were relief, recovery, and reform.
    B. Jobs were created for public works.
    C. The banking and investment industries were reformed.
    D. The legislation was introduced by Herbert Hoover.
    E. Many felt the programs resembled socialism.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Gavrilo Princip was a Bosnian nationalist. True False
    False
  56. A war of attrition is characterized by decisive, quick battles. True False
    False
  57. Woodrow Wilson could afford to be idealistic in peace talks because America had profited from the war. True False
    True
  58. All countries involved in the war were required to pay reparations. True False
    False
  59. Methods of dealing with emotional problems were developed by Ivan Pavlov. True False
    False
  60. Pablo Picasso developed a method of painting where he constructed an abstract pattern from an object. True False
    True
  61. Albert Einstein advanced the theory that each atom has a central particle. True False
    False
  62. Italy joined the side of the Allies in order to seek revenge against the Triple Alliance. True False
    Fasle
  63. Switzerland appealed to the Triple Entente for aid for fear of being invaded by Austria-Hungary. True False
    False
  64. Due to the Kaiser's poor foreign policy, France, England, and Russia formed the Triple Entente. True False
    True
  65. was an asian slave or manual laborer, particularly in China, the Indian subcontinent,
    Coolie
  66. was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868.
    led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure
    The Meiji Restoration
  67. widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864
    Taiping Rebellion
  68. The rebels attempted social reforms believing in shared "property in common"[1] and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with a form of Christianity
    Taiping Rebellion
  69. was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. Pioneering the use of non-violent resistance to tyrannical colonial rule through mass civil disobedience, he developed a model to fight for civil rights and freedom that he called satyagraha.
    Gandhi
  70. 3% of the world's population (which was 1.86 billion at the time[9]) died of the disease. Some 500 million, or 27%, were infected.[5]
    Spanish Flu Pandemic
  71. The Russians sought a warm water port[4] on the Pacific Ocean, for their navy as well as for maritime trade.
    Russo-Japanese War
  72. was one of the major voices designing the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in theaftermath of the war.
    George Clemenceau
  73. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered the world after the Great War
    David Lloyd George
  74. It ended the state of warbetween Germany and the Allied Powers
    Treaty of Versailles
  75. was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
    League of Nations
  76. Which group gained control of many Latin American nations in the decades after independence from colonial rule in the nineteenth century?
    A. ecclesias, or elite members of the Catholic clergy
    B. guerrillas, or freedom fighters who waged violent resistance to the current political system
    C. caudillos, or military strongmen who based rule on personal authority and patronage
    D. mestizos, or people of mixed Indian and Spanish descent
    E. peninsulares, or Spanish-born colonists
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Which was one of the major effects of the period of economic decline in most Latin American nations in the decades following independence?
    A. reliance on heavy foreign investment from America and France
    B. introduction of a variety of cash crops
    C. landowners produced less goods for domestic or international markets
    D. development of an extensive industrial sector
    E. nationalization of all domestic industries
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. During his long presidency, General Antonio López de Santa Anna (1795-1876) was involved in a series of humiliating wars with what nation?
    A. Honduras
    B. Great Britain
    C. Spain
    D. Cuba
    E. United States of America
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. What was the goal of General Julio Roca's "Conquest of the Desert" from 1879-1880?
    A. expelling the Catholic Church from land ownership in Buenos Aires or the pampas
    B.expelling foreign investors from Buenos Aires and the northern pampas
    C. expelling gauchos and bandits from Patagonia and the southern pampas
    D.expelling nomadic Indian tribes from Patagonia and the southern pampas
    E. expelling the mestizos and Creoles from Buenos Aires
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. In addition to debates over the nature of the monarchy, which was the other major issue facing the reign of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil?
    A. slavery
    B.powers of the Catholic Church
    C. debt to foreign nations
    D. banditry of the gauchos
    E. status of mestizos
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Which Latin American nation experienced the first major revolution and set a model for later revolutions in Latin America, Africa, and Asia?
    Argentina
    Chile
    Mexico
    Cuba
    Guatemala
    Mexico
  82. Which was NOT a provision of Venustiano Carranza's new constitution, drafted in 1917?
    right of women to divorce
    legalization of trade unions
    free market economy
    six-year term limit for the president
    ending of religious education
    free market economy
  83. Tango lyrics reflected
    French influence.
    political unrest.
    resistance to colonization efforts.
    immigrant men's loneliness.
    glorification of prostitution.
    immigrant men's loneliness
  84. How did the U.S. participate in the Mexican civil war? It blockaded northern Mexico so that Villa and Zapata could not receive supplies.
    It provided weapons and ammunition to Villa and Zapata.
    It provided weapons and ammunition to Caranza.
    It directly attacked the forces of Villa and Zapata.
    It deposed the government of Caranza.
    It provided weapons and ammunition to Caranza.
  85. The middle classes of Argentina during the early 20th century experienced
    a new domination of the ruling elite because of population growth.
    a consistent failure of their supported political party to win elections.
    a loss of electoral power.
    growing electoral clout.
    shrinking numbers.
    growing electoral clout
  86. What characterized "dollar diplomacy" instituted by President Theodore Roosevelt?
    education of Latin American intellectuals in American
    schools of economics boycott of Latin American
    products to pressure governmental policies adoption of the dollar by Latin American economies
    use of economic power to advance foreign policy
    goals imposition of high tariffs on foreign imports from Latin America
    use of economic power to advance foreign policy
  87. What prompted the American war with Spain over its rule of Cuba in 1898?
    execution of American spies in Havana
    confiscation of American-owned businesses, especially sugar plantations
    Spanish support for Cuban socialists
    attack on the American battleship Maine
    expulsion of all Americans from Cuba
    attack on the American battleship Maine
  88. What was the purpose of José Marti's letter in the New York Evening Post (March 25, 1899)?
    to dispel critics who claimed Cubans were idle
    to support the socialist revolution of Cuba
    to support American annexation of Cuba
    to condemn American actions in the Cuban reconstruction
    to support the restoration of the Catholic Church to Cuba
    to dispel critics who claimed Cubans were idle
  89. What prompted the United States to support rebellion in Colombia?
    election of a socialist president
    alliance with Cuba against U.S.
    business interests
    nationalization of domestic industries annexation by Spain
    resistance to the U.S. construction of the Panama Canal
    resistance to the U.S. construction of the Panama Canal
  90. Which was one of the reforms successfully enacted by the Progressive movement?
    A. ending of governmental regulation of businesses
    B. elimination of the direct primary from new states
    C. ending of referendums and initiatives in new states
    D. direct election of senators in new states
    E. enforcement of clear separations between the church and state
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Which was NOT a major challenge facing the new Latin American government following independence from colonial rule in the nineteenth century?
    A. a vacuum created by the withdrawal of the Church from governmental and cultural politics
    B. hierarchies based on ethic and racial diversity
    C. an economy based upon raw materials rather than industry
    D. the legacy of the colonial political culture of autocracy and patronage
    E. devastations from the wars of independence
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Which is a major feature of Benito Juárez's Reforma program?
    A. inclusion of mestizos and Indians in political life
    B. elimination of all foreign investment in the economy
    C. enhancement of the powers of the Catholic Church over economic and political life
    D. establishment of a constitutional monarchy
    E. reliance on peninsulares and Creoles for government positions
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. Which characterized the agricultural system of the pampas, or rich plains, in Argentina?
    A. division into villas, or grain fields, which were farmed by mestizo indentured servants
    B. creation of Church caudillos who regulated domestic labor
    C. division into estancias, or cattle ranches, that relied on the gauchos, or cowboys
    D. communal allods, which were open to independent . gauchos, or independent homesteads
    E. nationalization of all agricultural lands that were farmed by impressed Indians
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. In addition to Cuba and Puerto Rico, slavery remained a central institution in the economy of which Latin American country after independence?
    Honduras
    Argentina
    Mexico
    Brazil
    Chile
    Brazil
  95. How did Emperor Pedro II attempt to end the institution of slavery in the late nineteenth century?
    A. He completely abolished the institution by freeing all slaves.
    B. He freed all sugar plantation slaves, but he allowed the practice to continue on coffee plantations.
    C. He set a fixed fee for slaves to purchase their freedom.
    D. He freed all slave women, and he allowed slave men to purchase their freedom.
    E. He allowed children of slave mothers to be released at the age of 21.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. Which best characterizes the liberal governments that came to power at the end of the nineteenth century in many Latin American nations?
    A. Liberals were more concerned with stability and order than political reform.
    B. Liberals instituted reforms to eliminate corruption and graft from politics.
    C. Liberals instituted economic reforms that supported a countability and a free market.
    D. Liberals ended governmental control over key industries.
    E. Liberals instituted political reforms to limit executive powers.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Which was NOT an issue raised by women's groups, which had gained strength after World War I?
    equal wages with men
    divorce reforms
    access to education
    the right to vote
    legal reforms
    equal wages with men
  98. What was the major effect of Francisco Madero's Plan of San Luis Potosi, which was issued in 1910?
    rebellion against Porfirio Díaz's regime
    abolition of slavery
    extension of female suffrage
    introduction of foreign investment into mining and agriculture
    nationalization of key domestic industries
    rebellion against Porfirio Diazs regime
  99. Which two commodities formed the basis of the Brazilian economy in the late nineteenth century?
    coffee and rubber
    sugar and coffee
    rubber and beef
    silver and sugar
    sugar and rubber
    coffee and rubber
  100. What type of political system best characterized twentieth-century Argentina?
    oligarchy, as the few who owned the land ran the government
    theocracy, as the Catholic Church controlled politics
    constitutional monarchy, as the traditional king had been restored to authority
    democracy, as voting rights were extended to men and women
    military dictatorship, as the army selected the new presidents
    oligarchy
  101. Which was NOT a reason for American interest in Latin American politics?
    American sugar interests in Cuba
    effects of the Mexican-American War
    desire for a faster route to gold rich California
    American ownership of domestic oil fields
    the Monroe Doctrine of 1823
    American ownership of domestic oil fields
  102. How did the United States enforce its leadership over Latin America in the border dispute between Britain and Venezuela in 1895?
    It forced Britain to accept a humiliating treaty with Venezuela.
    It forced Britain to remove its interests from the region.
    It forced Britain to agree to arbitration.
    It forced Venezuela to accept a new government that was friendlier with foreign investors.
    Its army expelled British officials from Venezuela.
    It forced Britian to agree to arbitration
  103. Which does NOT characterize the American reconstruction of Cuba after the Spanish-American War?
    introducing adult male suffrage
    supporting of American business interests
    establishing of a state education system
    addressing of the threat from yellow fever
    nationalizing of domestic industries
    nationalizing of domestic industries
  104. What was the main emphasis of the Platt Amendment (1901) to the new Cuban constitution?
    The use of slaves in the sugar industry was abolished.
    Industries owned by American investors were nationalized.
    The U.S. was prohibited from influencing Cuban politics.
    The U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuba.
    Suffrage was extended to all adult women.
    The U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuba.
  105. What accounts for the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828?
    support from intellectuals
    support from the nobility
    support from Protestant clerics
    support from northeasterners
    support from the common people
    common people
  106. Why did the caudillos hold so much power after Latin American independence movements?
    They were strong military leaders.
    They could unite the factionalized nations.
    People could not agree on the type of government they desired.
    They appealed to poorer classes.
    Most Latin American peoples approved their type of government.
    People could not agree on the type of government they desired
  107. Peninsulares are
    persons of Spanish descent born in Latin America.
    persons of mixed Indian and Spanish descent.
    enlightened despots.
    Spanish-born colonists in Latin America.
    political strongmen.
    Spanish borned colonist in Latin America
  108. Which of the following did NOT hinder the creation of strong political states in Latin America after independence?
    leadership rivalries
    civil unrest
    language barriers
    stunted economic development
    ideological differences
    language barriers
  109. The Reforma
    increased the powers of the Catholic Church.
    promised to establish democracy.
    lessened power to mestizos.
    lessened power to caudillos.
    was never implemented.
    promised to est. democracy
  110. Which of the following contributed to Argentina becoming the wealthiest Spanish-speaking country in the world?
    Buenos Aires's ports
    rich agricultural lands
    Buenos Aires's ports and rich agricultural lands
    gauchos
    estancias
    Buenos Aire's port and rich agriculutural lands
  111. Why did Brazil maintain its unity unlike its neighbors? Language united the peoples.
    Brazil had a respected monarchy.
    Years of warfare had solidified Brazilian nationalism.
    Brazil had a stable economy.
    Brazil lacked a social class system.
    Brazil had a respected monarchy
  112. Which country blockaded the coast of Brazil in order to force an end to the practice of slavery?
    The United States
    France
    Portugal
    Spain
    Britian
    Britian
  113. Which of the following prohibited developing nationalism in Central America?
    economic decline
    ideological differences
    religious differences
    European intervention
    racial differences
    racial differences
  114. Which of the following was NOT on the agenda of women's rights groups in Latin America?
    voting rights
    access to education
    equal protection under the law
    divorce rights
    legal reform
    equal protection under the law
  115. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Plan of San Luis Potosi?
    A. Workers' rights were part of the plan's agenda.
    B. The plan included a call for land reform.
    C. The plan called for a democracy in Mexico.
    D. The plan was issued by Pancho Villa.
    E. Many groups were inspired by the plan to launch rebellions against Díaz.
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. Which of the following best describes Argentinean politics in the early twentieth century?
    A. Peasant workers held strong electoral ground.
    B. Regimes were disrupted by numerous rebellions.
    C. Outside governments needed to step in and take control of the country.
    D. Elections went smoothly and fairly.
    E. A landowning aristocracy dominated political affairs.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. Why did the United States go to war with Spain in 1898?
    A. Spain was irritated by U.S. dominance in the Western Hemisphere.
    B. The Spanish had blown up the battleship Maine.
    C. Spain had ignored America's request to issue arbitration.
    D. President Roosevelt was suspicious of Spain's motives against Venezuela.
    E. The United States was concerned about how the Spaniards were ruling Cuba.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. The Platt Amendment
    A. led to recognition of the United States as a world power.
    B. gave the U.S. authority to maintain order in Cuba.
    C. protected Venezuela from German military threats.
    D. took control of Cuba from Spain.
    E. forced Cubans to participate in peace negotiations.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. What did Andrew Jackson, as president, represent to the American people?
    A. a halt in the growth of democracy
    B. a return to Washingtonian politics
    C. the abolition of slavery
    D. the belief that the West was opening up
    E. the expectation that any American citizen could hold any office
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Which of the following issues did the Missouri Compromise address?
    slavery
    territorial expansion
    higher tariffs
    construction of an intercontinental railroad
    a national bank
    slavery
  121. France was the most heavily invested in Latin America prior to World War I. True False
    False
  122. Railroads were key to opening up Argentina's pampas. True False
    True
  123. Plantation owners in Brazil felt that European immigrants would be more productive workers than slaves. True False
    True
  124. General Pershing was successful in crushing a rebellion by Pancho Villa in 1915. True False
    False
  125. In 1901, the British took control of the rights of the Panama Canal. True False
    False
  126. Dollar diplomacy refers to American foreign policy goals that were advanced by economic power. True False
    True
  127. Peasants, who resented their land being lost to commercial landowners, helped to spur revolution in Mexico in the early twentieth century. True False
    True
  128. During Brazil's war with Paraguay, Brazilian conservatives demanded more say in the government. True False
    True
  129. The caudillos encouraged modernization and literacy in Mexico, based on the American model. True False
    False
  130. Progressive reform in America came about as a response to a growing economy.True False
    False
  131. Which of the following led to the Russian Revolution of 1917?
    A. the cost of participation in World War I
    B. resistance to foreign rule
    C. the corruption in Russian government
    D. the cost of participation in World War I and the incompetence of the Russian government
    E. the incompetence of the Russian government
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. Why did the Germans assist Lenin in returning to Russia?
    A. They hoped it would result in the Russians withdrawing from the war.
    B. They did not wish for Lenin to live in Germany.
    C. Lenin was German.
    D. Germany pledged to support socialism.
    E. Germany had a prior agreement in supporting dissenters into the tsarist government.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. Soviet means...
    a council
  134. According to Marx, who would achieve socialist revolution?
    the bourgeoisie
    the communists
    the Bolsheviks
    the proletariat
    the socialists
    the proletariat
  135. Why was war communism so unpopular?
    Peasants wanted a program of collectivism.
    It did not allow for people to work in factories.
    It wasn't purely a Marxist principle.
    Lenin did not implement it.
    Peasants had just gained control of their own land and did not want to surrender their surplus grain to the state.
    Peasants had just gained control of their own land and did not want to surrender their surplus grain to the state
  136. Which of the following is NOT true regarding Leninism?
    Under the new religion, Petrograd was renamed to Leningrad.
    The movement was powerful for 60 years.
    The movement was founded by Leon Trotsky.
    It was organized only after Lenin's death in 1924.
    It was a secular religion for the Soviet Union.
    The movement was founded by Leon Trotsky.
  137. Why did Stalin create the purges?
    as a demonstration of strength to foreign leaders
    to do away with opposition to Communism
    to do away with opposition to his leadership
    to protect the Russians from criticism
    to create universal support for Russia
    to do away with opposition to his leadership
  138. Who applied Darwinist theories to all aspects of human social life?
    Henri Bergson
    Herbert Spencer
    Adolf Hitler
    Joseph-Arthur Gobineau
    Joseph Stalin
    Herbert Spencer
  139. Why did Jews begin to support a Zionist movement?
    They wanted to displace the Arabs in the holy land of Palestine.
    Anti-Semitism was becoming stronger in Europe.
    Leninism was hostile to the Jews.
    They wanted to divorce themselves for the politics in Europe.
    Social Darwinism indicated they were more socially evolved than the rest of Europe.
    Anti-Semitism was becoming stronger in Europe.
  140. Why did the Socialists lose power in Italy?
    They could not gain a plurality.
    The fascists were able to edge them out of power quickly.
    The party lacked effective leadership.
    D'Annunzio and the black shirts used dramatic tactics to take control.
    Benito Mussolini captured the attention of the Italians.
    The party lacked effective leadership.
  141. Which of the following did Mussolini NOT blame for the Italians' hardships?
    the monarchy
    capitalists
    Socialists
    the church
    middle classes
    Socialists
  142. Why was Hitler so attracted to the German Workers' Party?
    because he did not agree with the rival parties
    because they accepted him despite his Jewish
    background because they were pro-Communism
    because they accepted him despite being Austrian
    because of their fervent nationalism
    because of their fervent nationalism
  143. Which of the following was the most significant reason as to why the Kristallnacht occurred?
    the Nuremberg laws
    to raid Jewish businesses for money for armaments
    to pay for German reparations from World War I
    spread of anti-Semitic fervor
    Adolf Hitler's demands for it
    to raid Jewish businesses for money for armaments
  144. Which of the following did the Nazis NOT control during the 1930s?
    cinema
    popular education
    the churches
    broadcasting
    universities
    the churches
  145. Which of the following best describes Japan post-World War I?
    technologically stagnant
    politically free
    culturally vibrant
    socially equal
    socially backward
    culturally vibrant
  146. Lenin had majority support in post-revolutionary Russia. True False
    F
  147. Stalin understood that the world was not ready for a communist revolution. True False
    T
  148. Mussolini's fascist movement was held together by effective social programs. True False
    F
  149. Hitler's ideology espoused resentment against rapid industrialization. True False
    T
  150. Economic distress was a key factor for Japan shifting to increasing militarism. True False
    T
  151. Economic distress was a key factor for Japan shifting to increasing militarism. True False
    F
  152. The Nuremberg laws defined a Jew as a person with at least one-half or more of Jewish blood. True False
    F
  153. Mussolini's movement was conservative and embraced the church. True False
    F
  154. Hitler was sent to prison in 1923 for writing Mein Kampf. True False
    F
  155. Stalin sought to make up for a hundred years of industrialization in ten years. True False
    F
  156. The dual power systems in 1917 functioned smoothly. True False
    F

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