WW1 Terms.txt

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ellliyaa
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WW1 Terms.txt
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2012-03-14 16:08:29
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WWI terms
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  1. Georges Clemenceau
    • french PM
    • during versailles > wanted strictest punishment for germany: severe disarment & repartations
    • predicted major war with germany
  2. Marshall Foch
    • (Ferdinand Foch)
    • Leader of the Battle of Marne
    • Somme Offensive -> Banished to It. Fr
    • Control over Western Front
  3. Woodrow Wilson
    • Author of Fourteen points at Versailles
    • President of USA
    • Brought in League of Nations
    • Noble Peace Prize Winner
  4. David Lloyd-George
    • British Prime Minister
    • Wanted more lenient punishments for Germany to save Euro economy
    • Opposed Boer War
  5. Vittorio Orlando
    • Italy's prime minister
    • attempted to gain territorial wins from being on winning side, control of adriatic
    • Failure at Versailles -> Mussolinni
  6. Tsar Nicholas II
    • thought to be weak but encouraged to be stern by his wife
    • took control of Russian army = fail
    • end of Russian monarchy
  7. Gen. Pavel Rennenkampf
    • Russian General
    • Led during Battle of Tannenburg
    • Conflict with Samsonov = removal
  8. Gen. Alexander Samsonov
    • Russian Gen. tt also commanded during Battle of Tannenburg
    • 2nd army
    • disaster -> didn't coordinate w/ 1st
  9. Gen. Alexei Brusilov
    • One of most brilliant Rus. Generals
    • Resp. for summer offensive
    • Only victories -> support morale
  10. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • German's last Kaiser, abdicated
    • Started naval race -> developed German's navy
    • incited A-H to attack Serbia
  11. Field Marshall von Hindenburg
    • Germany's most famous army commander
    • famed victories against Russian: Tannenburg & Masurian lakes
    • Elected President, persuaded Kaiser to abdicate
    • Appointed Hitler
  12. Erich Ludendorf
    • Close to Hindenburg -> helped victories at Tannenburg & Masurian Lakes
    • German General
    • supported unrestricted sub. warfare
    • worked on Schlieffen Plan
  13. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Heir to A-H throne
    • Assasinated -> triggering incident for WW1
    • attempted to bring equal rights to slavs
  14. Gavrilo Princip
    • Serbian assassinator of FF
    • Black Hand nationalist group
    • conflict of A-H & Serb
  15. Douglas Haig
    • General in British army
    • Led Somme Offensive & Passcendaele; Somme failure and Pass. high human cost
    • Managed Western front & criticized for tactics
  16. Arthur Currie
    • Canadian army commander
    • Handled gas attack at Ypres
    • Passcendaele
    • All major activity w/ Canadians
  17. Newfoundland Regiment
    • Newfoundland troops
    • Fought at Somme Bravely & Gallipoli
  18. Lawrence of Arabia
    • Welsh intelligence officer that worked with Arabs
    • Encouraged Arab forces to aid British
    • Vital part to defeating Turkey
  19. Ataturk
    • Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Father of Turks)
    • First Turkish President
    • Determination at Gallipoli won him admiration back home
    • Suceeded in Defense of Dardanelles
  20. Enver Pasha
    • Minister of War for Turkey
    • instrumental in Turkey on Central powers side
    • due to German army training supported Ger
    • Allowed German warship to stay in Dardanelles
  21. Triple Entente
    • Between Britain (& colonies), France, Russia
    • Not a military agreement -> encourage co-op if threat
    • Factor of outbreak of global war
    • eventually U.S.A.
  22. Triple Alliance
    • B/twn Germany, A-H, Italy
    • Military Agreement/mutual defence
    • Unless preventative war
  23. Anglo-Japanese Treaty
    • Japan used it to declare war on Germany, pursuit of more land
    • Treaty b/twn Britain and japan
    • Aimed at Russia, Military Alliance if 2/more countries at war
  24. Secret Treaties
    • Italy: Treaty w/ France, neutral if Ger. attcks Fr
    • Italy: Treaty of London; Br. offered territory for It. to open another front
    • A-H: w/ Romania, but Rom. eventually fought w/ Allies
    • increased tension
  25. Militarism
    • political/social emphasis on military matters = increase $
    • Naval Arms race b/twm Ger & Br
    • Previously conflict 1800's = building of large armies
    • increased discord b/twn countries
  26. Alliances
    • Triple Alliance and Triple Entente increased tensions
    • Cause of Global War
  27. Imperialism
    • Britain was strongest empire -> No land left for latecomer Ger
    • 1904 Fr & Br acknowledged territories
    • Conflicts as Germany tried to gain territory
  28. Assasination date?
    • June 28, 1914
    • Month later A-H declares war on Serbia
  29. Nationalism
    • Emotional attachment to cultural/territorial group, desire for independence
    • Princip assassinated Archduke b/c
    • Ger. wanted to be Global Power
    • Inciting incident cause of
  30. Eastern Front
    • Major deaths 3mil +
    • All major participants lost gov't form (Russia collapsed)
    • Mostly fought by Russians
    • Germany well trained
  31. Western Front
    • Trench warfare, not a short sweet victory
    • Belgium and France mostly
    • Mostly fought by French, Britain
  32. Winter War
    • Eastern Front
    • A-H appeals to Ger. to force Rus. off Carpathian Mts.
    • A-H forces fail and they lose Dukla pass (route into Hungarian planes) but bad weather disallows Rus. advantage
  33. White Russian vs. Reds
    • Whites: supported Monarchy, pro-Tsarist
    • Reds: Communists, new movement
    • Russian Revolution led to withdrawal of Russia fr WW1 and Brest-Litovsk treaty
  34. Hague Convention
    • Peace convention held in Hague
    • purpose: formal laws for war and war crimes, reasons to declare war, POW rights, weapons usage
    • Rules broken in WW1: Zeppelins, gas
  35. Total War
    • All society (civilian & military) involved and financial investments
    • WW1 = Total War
    • Everyone helped war effort
  36. No Man's land
    • Artillery shelled land full of pits
    • Muddy field between opposing trenches
    • Soldiers spent most of time in trenches
  37. Battle of Tannenburg
    • Best German victory on East. front
    • Huge Russian losses, shocked allies
    • first Defeat of Russ. loss of morale
  38. Blank Cheque
    • Kaiser's msg to A-H = offering support for war on Serbia
    • Alleviated tensions
    • Made war inevitable
  39. Schlieffen Plan
    • Plan by Ger. to invade through Belgium, overtake Fr then take out Rus
    • Failed -> no quick end of war
    • Brought Br. in
    • Unflexible plan
  40. Austrian Ultimatum
    • Ultimatum to Serbia after assassin.
    • Used as an excuse to declare war after Serb. rejects two terms
    • Juridisction over case and handling of Princip
  41. Treaty Brest-Litovsk
    • 1917 B/twn Ger. & Russia allowing Rus to back out of WW1
    • Lost Riga, Lithuania, Livonia, Estonia w/ coal & iron allowing Ger. to use
    • Anulled with TOV
    • Allowed Bolsheviks concen. on inner turmoil
  42. Treaty of Rapallo
    • 1922 b/twn Ger & USSR
    • allowed Ger. to produce forbid. weapons fr TOV
    • cancelled prewar debts/claims
    • more tension between allies & Ger.
  43. Treaty of St.Germaine
    • 1919 b/twn Austria & Allies
    • formally dissolved A-H empire
    • recog. ind o Hungary,Pol, Yugo, Czech
    • reduced power of A-H
  44. War Guilt Clause
    • Guilt clause in treaty of Versailles tt Ger. takes all respon for WW1
    • Resentment within Ger. -> WW2
    • led to reparations
  45. Reparations
    • Payment paid to winners of WW1
    • Crippled Ger. economy
    • Caused resent.
    • 6,600 million pounds
  46. Masurian Lakes
    • German victory over russ
    • Led to Renne. withdrawal
    • Fame to Hindenburg + Ludendorf
    • Further lower morale
    • Lost East Prussia
  47. Masurian Lakes 2 Winter Offensive
    • Blizzard: Ger. launches launches surp. attck on Russ.
    • Goal: knock out russ, focus on western front
    • Rus. held off 2 wks, while escaping before surrender
  48. Creeping Barrage
    • Slow artillery = defnsive curtain for infantry
    • Br. 1916 Battle of Somme
    • Casualties due to bad timing
  49. Dreadnought
    • Battleship built by Br
    • Little participation in war
    • Started Naval race
  50. U-Boat
    • German submarine -> attckd merchant ships
    • Unrestricted sub. warfare
    • brought US into war w/ Lusitania sinking
  51. Airplane/synchro fire
    • Fokker designed motor allow firing between
    • Started War in Air
    • Noble knights of sky
  52. Rehearsal
    • planning before a battle
    • Vimy Ridge, well planned
    • Brusilov's offensive
    • Led to success
  53. Blockade
    • Obstruction preventing ships fr leaving/transp. Ger
    • Naval blockade used by Br in NOrth sea
    • Crippled Ger. economy = food shortages
  54. Torpedo
    • Self-propelled underwater projectile ->explodes
    • Ger. u-boats targeted merchant ships
    • Aided in sinking of boats
  55. Trench Warfare
    • War of attrition, live/fight in trenches
    • Much of western front
    • Slow war that dragged out
  56. Machine Gun
    • Gun tt fires quickly/repeatedly (New)
    • Battle of Somme
    • Soldiers killed before out of trences
  57. Tank
    • First used by Br at Battle of Somme
    • Large armoured car
    • Beginning of improvement = new tech
  58. Balloon
    • Airship/zeppelin
    • Germans bombed England 1915
    • Fear in citizens & enraged countries
    • Violation o Hague convention
  59. Mustard Gas
    • violation o Hague
    • Gas that blistered interior of body
    • 1917 used by Ger. at Russians
  60. Barbed Wire
    • Spiky metal wire strung up across trenches
    • Slowed down enemy
    • Salonika -> Bird cage
  61. Jutland
    • last & largest naval battle
    • German never naval power again, Br remained
    • North sea, blockade of Germ
  62. Somme
    • Fr+Br vs Ger 1916
    • bttl of Attrition -> creeping barrage
    • divert Ger. fr Verdun
    • slow br. advance, heavy casualties
    • 90% NFL dead
  63. Marne
    • 20 miles outside Paris, Ger vs allies
    • Schlieffen plan fail
    • Gap in Ger. -> allies through w/ aid 6k troops taxi cabs
    • Prevented quick victory of West
  64. Vimy Ridge (Battle of Arras)
    • Greatest Battle for Can. all 4 troops together
    • Lots of preplanning: maps, rehearsal, replicas
    • Can. success = unified Canada
    • Took Ridge fr Ger
  65. Verdun
    • Ger vs Fre
    • Used to "bleed france white"
    • Symbolic value = loss of troops, fortress
    • Fr held Verdun
  66. Ypres
    • First use of Chlorine gas by Ger
    • Fr. gave line, but Can. held on
    • heavy casualties
    • prevent ger. fr Eng. ports
  67. List battles in Order
    Tannenburg, Masurian, Marne, Dardanelles, Ypres, Gallipoli, Arab Revolt, Somme, Jutland, Palestine, Isonzo, Salonika, Caporetto, Vimy, Passchendaele

    T.MAS.MAR,D,Y,G,A,S,J,Pal,I,Sal,C,V,Pas
  68. Passchendaele
    • heavy losses for both
    • Muddy nightmare
    • Goal: destory germ. submarines, led by Haig
    • neither side gained much
  69. Dardanelles
    • Naval battle: wanted access to Black sea to ship supplies to Russia
    • Strait b/twn Europe & Turkey
    • Turk. won defense, 3bttlshps sunk
  70. Gallipoli
    • continuation of Dardanelle attempt
    • Create another front & cap. capital: Constantinople
    • Ottoman keeps land
    • Allied evac
    • Bulgaria joins CP
  71. Salonika
    • Request by Greek to help Serbia
    • Barbed wired everything -> Birdcage
    • Bul. surrendered -> out of war
  72. Isonzo
    • A-H, Ger vs Italy
    • Isonzo River
    • Offensive to improve tactical position
    • Battles of Attrition to wear down forces
  73. Caporetto
    • A-H Ger vs It
    • Attck of A-H in mist broke It. line 1st day
    • angered public Italian opinion
    • Allied promised support
  74. Palestine
    • Otto. campaigned in Caucasus Mesopotamia
    • Suez Canal = key communications for Allies
    • Br. fought off troops but had to divert frcs there
  75. Arab Revolt
    • 1916 Lawrence cultivated relationship w/ Arabs
    • Took Jerusalem
    • Br promised unification
    • Otto. weakened -> downfall

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