Card Set Information
abatement of fever
pulse rate less than 60 bpm
pulse rate greater than 100 bpm
difference between the radial and apical pulse
irregular heart rate
absence of breathing
rapid respiratory rate
abnormal musical lung sounds heard on ascultation of the lungs durning inspiration
decreased oxygen in the blood
High-pitched crowing sound on inspiration
slow, shallow breathing
difficult and labored breathing
the pressure written below the line on B/P
an abrupt decline in fever
a silence is heard between sounds when auscultating B/P
the rate at which heat is produced when the body is at rest
heat production is a by product of
what structure controls the temperature? and by what type of mechanism?
hypothalamus; feedback mechanism
the pulse rate multiplied by the stroke volume equals
heat prodution is a by-product of _______which consist of _____________________.
metabolism; cellular chemical reaction of the body
what are factors that affect BMR?
-muscle movement that produce heat
what mechanisms attempts to cool the body by evaporation when a high fever occurs?
what is stroke volume?
the volume of blood pumped into the aorta per heart beat
the pulse rate is normally dependent on the impulses emerging from the _______ in the heart beat.
Sinoatrial node (SA)
the charater of the pulse is affected by?
what is the average cardiac output in the adult?
5L of blood per min
inhalation and exhalation is controlled by movement of the_______.
what membrane does diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur?
across the alveolar membrane
name the structure involved in respiration
what is the substance necessary to keep the alveoli open?
where is the respiratory center located?
in the pons and medulla of the brain stem
what is systolic pressure?
maxium pressure exerted on the arteries durning LT ventricle contraction
what is diastolic pressure
the heart is at rest and pressure in the arteries is lowest
B/P increases as _____ increases.
arterial B/P rises when there is an increase in ___________ resistance.
what happens when the blood volume decrease
when vascular wall decrease the B/P will ________
what is considered the normal temperature
what is the normal pulse rate in adults
what are some pulse finding that should be reported
-unable to palpate (name the pulse site)
a fever is considered significant when the temperature reaches
101.3*F or 38.5*C
where is the thermostat for the brain located
brain in the hypothalamus
what is the average B/P for a healthy young adult
when is B/P dangerous?
when it occur with symptoms of dizziness or faintness
average healthy adult temperature is
______ temperature is about 1* higher than _______
rectal temperature; oral temperature
_______ temperature is about 1* lower than the ________
axillary temperature; oral temperature
what is the closest temperature to core body temperature
what effects temperature
-time of day
another name for pyrexia is
what is pyrexia or fever
abnormal temperature over 100.2*F (37.8*C)
what temperature cause damage to body cells
______ occurs when the temperature falls below normal range.
how is the pulse initiated?
by contractions of the heart sending blood out into the arteries
where is the pulse normally assessed?
the pulse is normally assessed at the radial artery in the wrist or at the apex of the heart
what is the average pulse rate of the adult?
what is a pulse rate greater than 100 BPM called?
what is a pulse rate lower than 60 BPM called?
what is noted when recording the pulse measurement?
what is the nomal respiration rate for the healthy adult?
12-20 per min
a pattern of breathing in which there is an increase in the rate and the depth of breaths and carbon dioxide is expelled, causing the blood levels of carbon dioxide to fall
an increase rate and depth with panting and long grunting exhalation
shallow for two or three breaths with a period of variable apnea.
-consist of a pattern of dyspnea followed by a short period of apnea
-respirations are faster and deeper, then slower, and are followed by a period of no breathing, with continuation of the cycle
absence of breathing
continuous dry, rattling sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs caused by partial obstruction
snoring sounds produced when patients are unable to cough secretion from the trachea or bronchi
what another name for crackles?
crowing sound on inspiration caused by obstruction of the upper air passages
whistling sound of air forced past a partial obstruction
sounds like hair rubbed between the fingers next to the ear
crackles or rales
abnormal lungs sounds as occurs in croup or laryngitis
abnormal lung sounds as found in asthma or emphyseam
what is the term for normal breathing
tachypnea results from?
the presence of fever and a number of diseases
- breathing rate increase about four breaths for each 1*F or 0.5*C increased in temperature
bradypnea is often seen in patients who?
-are under medical sedation
-recovering from anesthesia or abdominal surgery
-who are weak or debilitated condition
hyperventilation the condition is seen
-durning high levels of anxiety or fear
-conditions such as diabetic acidosis
kussmaul's respiration are seen in patients
-with diabetic acidosis
biot's respiration are seen in patient with
increased intracranial pressure
cheyne-stokes respirations are seen in
-critically ill patients
-patients with brain conditions
-patients with heart or kidney failure
-cases of drug overdose
what is prehypertension B/P
-systolic B/P 120-139
-diastolic B/P 80-90
what is stage 1 hypertension B/P
-systolic B/P 140-159
-diastolic B/P 90-99
what is stage 2 prehypertension
what are the signs and symptoms that indicate shock?
-cold clammy skin
-increase pulse rate