npn 105

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npn 105
2012-03-17 23:48:26
vital sounds

chapter 21
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  1. defervescence
    abatement of fever
  2. pulse rate less than 60 bpm
  3. pulse rate greater than 100 bpm
  4. difference between the radial and apical pulse
    pulse deficit
  5. irregular heart rate
  6. absence of breathing
  7. rapid respiratory rate
  8. abnormal musical lung sounds heard on ascultation of the lungs durning inspiration
  9. decreased oxygen in the blood
  10. High-pitched crowing sound on inspiration
  11. slow, shallow breathing
  12. difficult and labored breathing
  13. the pressure written below the line on B/P
  14. an abrupt decline in fever
  15. a silence is heard between sounds when auscultating B/P
    auscultatory gap
  16. the rate at which heat is produced when the body is at rest
    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  17. heat production is a by product of
  18. what structure controls the temperature? and by what type of mechanism?
    hypothalamus; feedback mechanism
  19. the pulse rate multiplied by the stroke volume equals
    cardiac output
  20. heat prodution is a by-product of _______which consist of _____________________.
    metabolism; cellular chemical reaction of the body
  21. what are factors that affect BMR?
    • -thyroid hormone
    • -epinephrine hormone
    • -norepinephrine hormone
    • -testosterone hormone
    • -muscle movement that produce heat
  22. what mechanisms attempts to cool the body by evaporation when a high fever occurs?
  23. what is stroke volume?
    the volume of blood pumped into the aorta per heart beat
  24. the pulse rate is normally dependent on the impulses emerging from the _______ in the heart beat.
    Sinoatrial node (SA)
  25. the charater of the pulse is affected by?
    stroke volume
  26. what is the average cardiac output in the adult?
    5L of blood per min
  27. inhalation and exhalation is controlled by movement of the_______.
  28. what membrane does diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur?
    across the alveolar membrane
  29. name the structure involved in respiration
    • -nose
    • -pharynx
    • -larynx
    • -trachea
    • -bronchi
    • -lungs
    • -diaphagm
    • -respiratory muscle
  30. what is the substance necessary to keep the alveoli open?
  31. where is the respiratory center located?
    in the pons and medulla of the brain stem
  32. what is systolic pressure?
    maxium pressure exerted on the arteries durning LT ventricle contraction
  33. what is diastolic pressure
    the heart is at rest and pressure in the arteries is lowest
  34. B/P increases as _____ increases.
    stroke volume
  35. arterial B/P rises when there is an increase in ___________ resistance.
    peripheral vascular
  36. what happens when the blood volume decrease
    B/P decrease
  37. when vascular wall decrease the B/P will ________
  38. what is considered the normal temperature
    • -97.5-99.5*F
    • -36-37.5*C
  39. what is the normal pulse rate in adults
    60-100 BPM
  40. what are some pulse finding that should be reported
    • -bradycardia
    • -tachycardia
    • -arrhythmia
    • -unable to palpate (name the pulse site)
  41. a fever is considered significant when the temperature reaches
    101.3*F or 38.5*C
  42. where is the thermostat for the brain located
    brain in the hypothalamus
  43. what is the average B/P for a healthy young adult
  44. when is B/P dangerous?
    when it occur with symptoms of dizziness or faintness
  45. average healthy adult temperature is
    • -98.6*F
    • -37*C
  46. ______ temperature is about 1* higher than _______
    rectal temperature; oral temperature
  47. _______ temperature is about 1* lower than the ________
    axillary temperature; oral temperature
  48. what is the closest temperature to core body temperature
    tympanic temperature
  49. what effects temperature
    • -time of day
    • -environment
    • -age
    • -exercise
    • -hormones
    • -emotional stress
    • -disease condition
    • -certain drugs
  50. another name for pyrexia is
  51. what is pyrexia or fever
    abnormal temperature over 100.2*F (37.8*C)
  52. what temperature cause damage to body cells
    • -105.8*F
    • -41*C
  53. ______ occurs when the temperature falls below normal range.
  54. how is the pulse initiated?
    by contractions of the heart sending blood out into the arteries
  55. where is the pulse normally assessed?
    the pulse is normally assessed at the radial artery in the wrist or at the apex of the heart
  56. what is the average pulse rate of the adult?
    72 BPM
  57. what is a pulse rate greater than 100 BPM called?
  58. what is a pulse rate lower than 60 BPM called?
  59. what is noted when recording the pulse measurement?
    • -rate
    • -rhythm
    • -volume
  60. what is the nomal respiration rate for the healthy adult?
    12-20 per min
  61. a pattern of breathing in which there is an increase in the rate and the depth of breaths and carbon dioxide is expelled, causing the blood levels of carbon dioxide to fall
  62. an increase rate and depth with panting and long grunting exhalation
    kussmaul's respiration
  63. shallow for two or three breaths with a period of variable apnea.
    Biot's respiration
  64. -consist of a pattern of dyspnea followed by a short period of apnea
    -respirations are faster and deeper, then slower, and are followed by a period of no breathing, with continuation of the cycle
    Cheyne-Stokes respiration
  65. apnea
    absence of breathing
  66. continuous dry, rattling sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs caused by partial obstruction
  67. snoring sounds produced when patients are unable to cough secretion from the trachea or bronchi
  68. what another name for crackles?
  69. crowing sound on inspiration caused by obstruction of the upper air passages
  70. whistling sound of air forced past a partial obstruction
  71. sounds like hair rubbed between the fingers next to the ear
    crackles or rales
  72. abnormal lungs sounds as occurs in croup or laryngitis
  73. abnormal lung sounds as found in asthma or emphyseam
  74. what is the term for normal breathing
  75. tachypnea results from?
    • the presence of fever and a number of diseases
    • - breathing rate increase about four breaths for each 1*F or 0.5*C increased in temperature
  76. bradypnea is often seen in patients who?
    • -are under medical sedation
    • -recovering from anesthesia or abdominal surgery
    • -who are weak or debilitated condition
  77. hyperventilation the condition is seen
    • -after exertion
    • -durning high levels of anxiety or fear
    • -fever
    • -conditions such as diabetic acidosis
  78. kussmaul's respiration are seen in patients
    • -with diabetic acidosis
    • -renal failure
  79. biot's respiration are seen in patient with
    increased intracranial pressure
  80. cheyne-stokes respirations are seen in
    • -critically ill patients
    • -patients with brain conditions
    • -patients with heart or kidney failure
    • -cases of drug overdose
  81. what is prehypertension B/P
    • -systolic B/P 120-139
    • -diastolic B/P 80-90
  82. what is stage 1 hypertension B/P
    • -systolic B/P 140-159
    • -diastolic B/P 90-99
  83. what is stage 2 prehypertension
    • -systolic B/P >160
    • -diastolic B/P >100
  84. what are the signs and symptoms that indicate shock?
    • -cold clammy skin
    • -apprehension
    • -dizziness
    • -blurred vision
    • -increase pulse rate