the olfactory nerve fibers pass through the cribriform plate in the roof of the nose, where they integrate with the
the sense of smell is processed in the olfactory cortex of the
inflammation of the nasal mucosa, usually evidenced by excessive mucous production
growths that originate from mucous membrane
Permanent enlargement of the turbinates or nasal conchae may occur as a result of
typically straight at birth. during aging, it tends to deviate to one side or the other. may also be due to trauma
nasal septum (deviated septum)
the nasal septum may become perforated due to
carcinoma, chronic infection, intractable picking, occupational chemical exposure, or substance (cocaine) abuse.
the main cause of nosebleed
Diagnostic procedures/test to nasal and paranasal sinus include
direct vision, mirror examination and radiography
during nasal procedures the head is placed on a headrest and may be raised to
reduce bleeding and prevent edema
the use of a small table may be requeste to hold the supplies necessary for administering the local. this "clean" setup includes:
2 med cups
2 local syringes
2 25- or 27-gauge x 2-in needles
long cotton-tip applicators
considered cosmetic and is performed by the plastic/reconstructive surgeon to change the external appearance of the nose
used to remove a hypertrophic turbinate, usually the inferior
polyp is grasped with a forceps, encircled by a snare wire, and amputated, or a forcep may be used for removeal
a "last resort" type of procedure, as most cases of severe epistaxis can be controlled with internal packing or electrosurgery
Ligation of the internal maxillary
a more radical typ of antrostomy and is performed when intranasal antrostomy alone does not provide adequate visualization
may be entered through the nose, or an incision can be made near the inner canthus of the eye on the affected side
known to the general population as the throat, is, in actuality, seveal individual and specialized structures that work in harmony to facilitate respiration and ingestion of food.
upper aerodigestive tract
3 salivary glands
2 types of cells are foun in the salivary glands
the largest of the three glands located on the lateral sides of the face anterior to the external ear
located inferior to the jaw, lies on top of the strap muscles and is also covered by the platysma, integument, and fascia
the smallest of the 3 glands, located beneath the mucous membrane that cover the floor of the mouth
commonly referred to as the throat, is a tubular structure approximately 13 cm
most superior portion of the pharynx, located posterior to the nasal cavity
enter the nasopharyn from the middle ear. function is to equalize the pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane, peventing rupture of the tympanci membrane
eustachian (auditory or pharyngotympanic) tubes
single mass of lymphatic tissue embedded in the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
when pharyngeal tonsils are enlarged, they are referred to as
the middle portion of the pharynx, located posterior to the oval cavity, and it houses the palatine and lingual tonsils. begins at the uvula, communicating superiorly with the nasopharynx and extends to the level of the hyoid
2 oval masses of lymphoid tissue commonly called "the tonsils"
palatine, or faucial tonsils
a pair of lymphoid areas located on the posterior surface of the tongue near the base
commonly called the voice box, is located between the pharynx and the trachea.
the largest and most superiro of the single cartilages is
The only cartilage in the upper aerodigestive tract to form a complete circle and is found at the base of the larynx
superior opening into the larynx is
aka windpipe located anterior to the esophagus
most inferior tracheal cartilage is called the ______, which bifurcates into the tow primary bronchi.
very common inflammation of the throat is ______, which may be either viral or bacterial in origin
an infectious disease that can affect any age group although is is most commonly seen in the 2 - 5 year old child. may be viral or bacterial.
may affect the pharyngeal, palatine, or lingual tonsils
inflammation of the vocal cords usually caused by a virus and is rarely seen in children
inflammation of the esophagus can have many causes the most common cause is reflux of stomach acid into it leading to what is commonly called "heartburn" usually treated with diet modification, stress reduction, and antacid therapy
A diverticulum is an out-pouching of the wall of the intestinal tract, and esophageal diverticulum is referred to as
the removal of pharyngeal tonsils that have become enlarged
the removal of the palatine or faucial tonsisl. ususally done on an out-patient basis.
Both the palatine tonsils and the pharyngeal tonsils are removed simultaneously in a combination procedure
T & A
excision of aportion or all of the parotid gland
the definitive treatment for intrctable snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. performed on adults and is done under general anesthesia. Tedundant tissue of the fauces, tonsils (if present) and a portion of the uvula are removed
performed to remove a foreign body, obtsin a diagnosis, or treat a condition of the vocal cords, such as removal of a nodule
accomplished in much the same way as laryngoscopy and is performed for the same reasons.
may be either diagnostic or for the removal of a foreign body
refers to a procedure that may involve inspection of seveal portions of the upper aerodigestive tract
the partial or complete surgical removal of the larnyx