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In order for something to be a mineral, it must follow what three rules?
1.) It must be naturally occuring
2.) It must be inorganic
3.) It must be a crystalline substance, meaning that the atoms must be arranged in regular geometric pattern.
If a material is not crystalline it must be what?
A rock is a group of minerals attached to each other.
What are the basic materials that make up our planet?
- Solid Earth
- Water (hydrosphere=ALL the Earth's water)
- Gases (atmostphere)
- Loose Earth (regolith)
- Life Forms (Biosphere)
What are the external processes that effect rock?
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Weathering is the physical breakdown of a rock. For example, if a rock has cracks, water can seep into them and when it freezes it may cause the rock to break.
Give an example of CHEMICAL WEATHERING
If a rock has iron in it and it is exposed to water it may rust.
What is EROSION?
Erosion is transport, and is accomplished by an outside agent. If a river moves a pebble downstream, etc.
After erosion (transport) a rock is delivered to a new place.
Describe Steady State.
Steady State is when the rate going in somet resevoir is equal to the rate going out.
What is the transformation from sediment to sedimentary rock called?
Define Igneous Rock.
Any rock formed by cooling liquid rock.
Liquid rock is referred to as what when it is underground?
When sedimentary rock undergoes intense heat and/or pressure, what happens?
It metamorphoses, becoming a metamorphic rock.
What is Lithification, exactly?
The process of burying and cementing that turns sediment into a sedimentary rock.
What might turn an igneous rock into sediment?
Weathering, Erosion, and/or Depositition.
In a nutshell, explain global warming.
Global warming is a well-supported, heavily favored theory that explains that humans have directly altered the carbon cycle, meaning that more CO2 is in the atmosphere.
What is the difference between relative time and absolute time?
Relative time is a way of looking at specimans as they relate to their surroundings, and not aiming for an exact date.
Absolute time would be that I was born in 1988, whereas relative time would be that I was born around the time that the Berlin wall fell, and shortly before the Internet took off.
What are the principals of relative time?
1.) Superposition (when it comes to layers of sediment, the oldest ones are on the bottom, the youngest ones are on the top.)
2.) Cross-cutting Relationships (any feature that slices a rock is younger than that rock
3.) Life Forms (Flora & Fauna) life forms through time follow in a definite, recognizable sequence.