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What are the 5 Chapters of the FPSI 10th Edition Study Guide?
- 1) Firefighter Orientation
- 2) Hoses and Ladders
- 3) First Aid and Rescue
- 4) Standard Operating Procedures
- 5) Emergency Incident Rehabilitation
What are two types of non-fire related calls?
- Traffic accident
- Medical emergency
What are a firefighter's duties at a fire?
- Connect hose lines to a hydrant
- Operate a pump to send water to high pressure hoses
- Position ladders to deliver water to the fire
- Rescue victims
- Provide medical attention
- Rescue trapped survivors
What percentage of fire departments provide ambulance service to patients?
What settings to firefighters work in?
- Urban and suburban areas
- Chemical plants
- Industrial sites
- Hazardous materials
What are some of the duties a wildland firefighter?
- Suppress the blaze using heavy equipment, hand tools, and water hoses
- Create fire lines by digging out grass and other combustibles
- Smoke jumpers parachute in via plane to inaccessible areas
What are three things firefighters do between alarms?
- Clean and maintain equipment
- Practice drills
- Practice inspections
- Participate in physical fitness activities
- Prepare written reports on fire incidents
- Review Fire Science literature
What are some of the risks of being a firefighter?
- Sudden cave-ins of floors
- Toppling walls
- Traffic accidents when responding to calls
- Exposure to flames and smoke
- Poisonous, flammable, or explosive gases and chemicals
- Radioactive or other hazardous materials
Facts about Firefighter hours
- Many work more than 50hrs in a week
- Some work 24 on 48 off
- Some work day shift of 10hrs for 3-4 days then a night shift for 3-4 nights then 3-4 days off
- Work extra hours at fires / emergencies
- Work on holidays
- Fire lieutenants and captains work same hours
What percentage of fire companies are volunteer?
# of paid firefighters in 2002?
# of supervisors and managers in 2002?
# of fire inspectors in 2002?
What is public safety organization in some cities?
- Fire prevention
- Fire education
- Emergency medical services
Criteria for firefighting jobs
- Pass written test
- Strength test
- Physical stamina
- Medical exam / drug screen
Topics learned in fire academy
- Firefighting techniques
- Fire prevention
- Hazardous meterials control
- Local building code
- Emergency medical procedures
- First aid and cardiopulmonary resucitation
Some departments have appreticeship programs that last up to 5 years. What are some of the technical instruction programs?
- Firefighting techniques and equipment
- Chemical hazards associated with various combusitible building materials
- Emergency medical procedures
- Fire prevention and safety
Training sessions through US National fire Academy
- Executive development
- Anti-arson techniques
- Disaster preparedness
- Haz materials control
- Public fire safety and education
Personal qualities of a firefighter?
- Mental alertness
- Mechanical aptitude
- Sense of public service
- Good judgement
- Gets along with others
- Leadership qualities
How do you promote?
- Written exam results
- Job performance
Typical line of promotion -
- Battalion Chief
- Assistant Chief
- Deputy Chief
- Fire Chief
Median hourly for firefighter in 2002
- $17.42 / hour
- $17.92 local government
Median annual salary for first line supervisors/managers of firefighting and prevention workers in 2002 -
- $56,390 - Local government
Median salary for fire inspectors in 2002 -
- $46,820 - Local government
Positions and min base salary -
- Fire chief - $64,134
- Deputy Chief - $56,522
- Assistant Fire Chief - $55,645
- Battalion Chief - $54,935
- Fire Captain - $45,383
- Fire Lieutenant - $41,800
- Fire Prevention / Code Inspector - $40,837
- Engineer - $38,656
General Firefighter benefits
- Overtime pay
- Medical and liability insurance
- Vacation and sick leave
- Some paid holidays
- Protective clothing - helmets, boots, coats
- Breathing aparatus
- Dress uniforms
- Pension plans
- Retirement at half pay after 25 years
How many deaths does CVD account for in the US?
Leading cause of deaths at 1MM per year
US Fire Administration aims to reduce FF deaths by what percentage by 2005?
What is Cardiovascular disease (CVD)?
A state of disease in the blood vessels, where vessels become narrowed of obstructed then blood and the oxygen and nutrients that it carries cannot be delivered to the organs of the body.
What happens when blood flow to the heart muscle is impeded?
A heart attack occurs.
What is CHD and CAD?
Coronary Heart Disease and Coronary Artery Disease which are specific forms of CVD in which blood vessels supplying the heart muscles are blocked.
What is ischemia?
Lack of oxygen to tissue.
What is infarction?
Death of heart muscle tissue.
What is atherosclerosis?
Disease condition in which fatty substances and cholesterol builds up the arterial wall causing the size of the vessel opening to become narrower.
What is a modifiable risk factor?
A factor that can be minimized by diet, exercise, or personal habits.
What are the six modifiable risk factors?
- Smoking (leading avoidable cause)
- Physical activity
What are four risk factors that cannot be modified?
What percentage of the adult population smokes?
How many deaths per year are caused by smoking?
What are the four risks that smoking increases?
- Sudden cardiac arrest
- Aortic aneurysm
- Peripheral vascular disease
What is hypertension?
Chronic elevation of blood pressure, over 140/90.
What percentage of hypertensive patients die from coronary heart disease?
What percentage of hypertensive patients die from stroke?
What percentage of hypertensive patients die from renal failure?
10 - 15%
What are blood lipids?
Comprised of triglycerides and cholesterol.
What are LDLs?
Low density lipoproteins or "bad cholesterol".
What are HDLs?
High density lipoproteins or "good cholesterol".
Who has a nine times elevated risk for heart attack?
Adult males in the top 25% quartile for cholesterol.
What % increase in risk for every 10mg/dl of cholesterol?
What are two major factors that decrease triglycerides and increase HDL levels?
Weight loss and aerobic exercise.
What % of the population is obese?
20% of adults
What % of the population is overweight?
25-30% of adults
What is the health risk associated with excess body weight?
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
What happens to your body if you only exercise?
Lose fat and muscle.
What happens to your body if you diet and exercise?
Lose mostly fat.
What is diabetes?
Metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to use sugar effectively and haev a 300-500% increased chance of cardiac events.
What % of deaths from CVD are patients with diabetes?
What is the term and the cluster of risk factors including diabetes?
- Metabolic Syndrome X
- Abdominal obesity
What is the CVD risk factor for physically inactive people?
2x that of an active person.
What risk factors are influenced by exercising moderately?
- Decreased blood pressure
- Improved Lipid profile
- Decreased body fat
- Improved glucose tolerance
- Eliminates physical activity
What risk factor are influenced by eating a balanced diet?
- Improved lipid profile
- Decreased body weight
- Improved glucose tolerance
- May decrease blood pressure
What are the 5 benefits of being flexible?
- Decreases risk of injury
- Increases physical efficiency and performance
- Increases tissue temperature
- Increases neuromuscular coordination
- Reduces muscle soreness
What are the 4 benefits of strength training?
- Improved body composition
- Improved physical functioning
- Decreased risk for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis
- Improved flexibility
What are the two Ergonomic-Related Disorders?
- CTD or Cumulative Trauma Disorders
- Back Disorders
What are CTDs and two examples?
- Wear and tear on the joints surrounding tissue because of overuse.
- Nerve Compression
What are 7 risk factors of on the job CTDs?
- Awkward postures
- Contact Stress
- Temperature extremes
- Stressful conditions
Pulled or strained muscles, ligaments, tendons, and discs
What are 7 types of Back Disorders
- Lumbosacral strain
- Lumbosacral sprain
- Postural low back pain
- Muscular insufficiency
- Herniated disc
- Degenerated disc
What are 8 risk factors for back disorders?
- Heavy physical work
- Bending, stretching, and reaching
- Pushing and pulling
- Prolonged sitting and standing
What are the common diameters for fire hoses?
What are the two types of hoses?
What are two types of Suction Hoses?
What is a hard suction hose?
Rubber lined and jacketed with metal or wire bands between the rubber layers, used to draft water from a reservoir. Comes in 10 foot lengths.
What is a soft suction hose?
Rubber lined with a double woven cotton fabric jacket.
What are the three categories of discharge hoses?
- Woven-jacket, rubber lined house
- Supply Hose
- Booster Hose
What is a Hose Wagon?
Sometimes responds with an engine. Carries tools and hose to augment the engine company.
Means of moving water under pressure from the pumper to the area of need
Mechanically breaks the stream of water coming from the hose into tiny particles. Absorbs more heat than a straight stream.
Triple combination motorized vehicle with a pump which carries house and water.
Straight Stream Nozzle
Nozzles in sizes 1/8 to 2.5 inch. Used to shape a stream for maximum reach
Master Stream Appliances
All nozzles and straight stream devices of 500 GPM and over
Common diameter for single jacketed hoses?
1.5 and 2.5 inch, used for building occupants for interior fire protection
Common diameter for double jacketed hoses?
1, 1.5, 1.75, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4. 2.5 most common size and usually pre connected to the pump. 1.75 most common lightweight house.
What is the maximum GPM for handheld streams?
How much 2.5 inch house do most engines carry?
How many GPM can 2-4 inch hose carry?
What size house to master supply appliances require?
Hose that moves large volumes of water from hydrant to engine, engine to engine, engine to truck, or engine to master stream appliance.
Two types of supply hose?
Single and double jacket
What are available diameters of supply hose?
2.5, 4, 4.5, 5, and 6 inch
Rubber jacketed and rubber lined hose. Common size .75 and 1 inch. Pressure of 400PSI, up to 1,000PSI. 1 inch carries 2x .75 hose.
Metal or metal alloy device for connecting hose ends or other fire service equipment.
4 Ways fire hose gets damaged
Out of roundness of a hose
Occurs when a valve is abruptly closed causing increased pressure
Engine speed governor
Prevents damage to the pump by not allowing the RPM to vary
Two types of ladders
Ground and aerial
Ground ladder length
10-65ft and require 1 to 6 people to operate
Aerial ladder length
55-160ft, additionally classified into elevating platforms, aerial baskets, and snorkels
Portion of the extension type ladder which are elevated as the halyard rope is pulled
Bottom section of an extension ladder
10ft folding ladder used to get into attic or scuttle holes.
Locks, Pawls, or Dogs
Device used for holding and locking the extended fly portions.
What's the proper climbing angle?
How far away from the house should the ladder go?
Take the ladder height, divide by 5 and add 2.
How many people are allowed on the ladder?
1 person for every 10 feet of ladder
Tormentor, brace or banger poles
Used on long extension ladders for control
4 ladder truck configurations
- Standard aerial truck ladder
- Tower ladder
- Aerial articulating ladder
- Special trucks
Aerial truck ladder lengths
- Special order
How long can the brain go without permanent damage?
Process of supplying oxygen to the body through the lungs and the simultaneous removal of carbon dioxide.
Once CPR is started, it must be continued until one of the following occurs
- Sufficient circulation and ventilation are restored. Patient is functioning on his own.
- Another qualified individual assumes responsibility for the CPR
- Physician orders you to stop
- You are too exhausted to continue
How many inches is the lower sternum depressed for an adult for CPR?
1.5 to 2 inches
Compression ratio for adults in CPR?
30 compressions to 2 breaths
Rate of compressions
100 compressions per minute
How many inches is the lower sternum depressed for an children and infants for CPR?
1/3 of an inch
What part of the heart is usually affected by an MI?
What is angina pectoris?
- Spasmodic chest pain
- Restricted blood flow to the heart
- Relieved with nitroglycerin
Three consequences of MI?
- Death from heart's inability to move blood
- Congestive heart failure
6 Symptoms of MI?
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Sudden weakness, nausea, sweating
What is a CVA?
Cerebrovascular Accident - restricted blood supply to some part of the brain
Three causes of CVA?
- Blockage of cerebral artery when a blood clot forms at site of damage
- Rupture of an artery causing interruption of blood flow. Damage can be caused by blood flow into brain tissue or lack of blood
- Blood clot that formed elsewhere in the body and moves into the brain area
How many risk factors of CVA are influenced by exercise?
How many risk factors can be modified?
How many risk factors cannot be modified?
When a blood pressure reaches high level and blood vessel becomes weakened and protrudes
Signs of a stroke?
High blood pressure and low pulse
Indication of internal blood loss with puncture wound?
Low blood pressure due to internal organ damage
When muscles of the blood vessels are temporarily paralyzed. Vessels tend to dilate and more blood flow than normal is required to fill them.
Internal bleeding signs
- Bright red blood vomited
- Dark brown stool or rectum bleeding
Inadequate supply of blood
Loss of nervous control of the vascular system
Fainting caused by dilation of blood vessels from emotional stimulation
Inadequate functioning of the heart
Loss of bodily fluids and minerals as in dehydration
8 Signs of shock
- Restlessness and anxiety
- Weak, rapid pulse
- Cold, moist skin
- Face, lips, and nail beds become cyanotic
- Respirations are shallow and labored
- Extreme thirst and sensation of needing to vomit
- Blood pressure falls
Symptoms of heat stroke
- All sweating ceases
- Body temperature of 105 or higher
Burns that should be treated as critical -
- 3rd degree burns involving critical areas - face, hand, feet
- 3rd degree burns involving more than 10% of body
- Respiratory tract burns
- 2nd degree burns over 30% of body
- Very old or young patients
- Additional diseases or chronic medical conditions
- 2-10% of body 3rd degree (non-critical areas)
- 2nd degree 15-30%
- 1st degree 50-75%
- 3rd degree less than 2%
- 2nd degree less than 15%
- 1st degree less than 50%
Care for burns
- Immerse burn in cool water for 2-5 minutes
- Cover with sterile dressing
- Cool, wet applications
- Start IV to replace lost fluids as a result of the burn
Care for Chemical Burns
Flush for 15-20 minutes
- Positive hydrogen ions
- Can cause burns and has sour taste
- Can be neutralized by a base
Contains a base of salts or metals and can cause burns
- Located behind the stomach
- Produces insulin
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
- Frequent urination
- Great thirst
Body metabolizes fat, increases acid levels, loss of body fluids from vomit/urination
Symptoms of diabetic coma
- Air hunger
- Sweet or fruity odor
- Rapid, weak pulse
- Slightly low blood pressure
- Various degrees of unresponsiveness
When too much insulin has been given, or patient has not eaten enough, or exercised excessively
Symptoms of insulin shock
- Normal respiration
- Pale, moist skin
- Dizziness and headache
- Full, rapid pulse
- Normal BP
Primary issue with drug use
Respiration levels are low
Potential water hazards
- Underwater and surface hazards
- Possible hazardous contaminates
2 water search patterns
Parallel and sweep patterns
Vacation time minimum
Time that vacation must be requested
10am previous day
How do you call in sick leave?
- Before 5:30am
- To Battalion 201
Fewer than 25 patients
Mass casualty incident
More than 100 patients
General Tactical Objectives
- Remove endangered occupants and treat the injured
- Stabilize the incident and provide for life safety
- Ensure the functions of triage, extrication, treatment and transportation are established
- Provide for the safety, accountability, and welfare of rescue members and victims
- Conserve property
- Completion of a Triage Report
- Declaration of ALL IMMEDIATES Transported
What is the priority order of patients to be transported?
- Immediate - Delayed
Initial Actions at a scene?
- Initiate triage
- Rapid hazard assessment and safe zone
- Initiate traffic control zone and provide a safe work area
- Hazard Protection
- Call additional resources
- Radio a triage report to alarm
- Stabilize hazards and/or remove patients to treatment area
- Assign crew tasks to accomplish through sectorization or by location
- Initiate patient assessment and treatment functions
- Coordinate patient transportation
When do you use triage tags?
More than 3 immediate patients or 10 patients
The incident commander is responsible for the strategic level of command structure and should do these 8 things -
- Determine strategy
- Establish incident objectives
- Set priorities
- Develop and communicate plan
- Obtain and assign resources
- Initiate planning based on evaluating interventions and predicting outcomes
- Communicate Objective to tactical level units
- Initiate Unified command with other agencies
What is PAR?
- Personnel Accountability Report
- A confirmation that all members are accounted for
When is a PAR warranted?
- Report of missing or trapped firefighter
- Change from offensive to defensive
- Sudden hazardous event at the incident
- When call for an "all clear"
- Every 30 minutes of elapsed time
- At report of fire under control
- Anytime command feels it is necessary
What does an Accountability Sector Officer do?
- Plan to track and account for personnel
- Ensure that Accountability Officers are implemented in each sector
- Request and manage sector resources as needed
- Provide progress reports to command
- Initiate PAR upon benchmarks or as needed
Passport rules of thumb -
- Never enter the hot zone
- Maintained at the point of entry into the hot zone
- Reflect only those presently in the hot zone
- Crews turn in upon entering and retrieve upon exiting the hot zone
What is a RIC?
- Rapid Intervention Crew
- Used for working fires and those that pose a special hazard
What is a firefighter accountable for?
Staying with crew at all times and that his name is on the Passport at all times
What is an Engineer responsible for?
First engine becomes the Accountability Officer, collects Passports until relieved by a Accountability Officer or Sector Officer
What is a Company Officer responsible for?
Keeps crew intact and makes sure that Passport is accurate.
What is a Sector Officer responsible for?
Accounting for all crews in the assigned sector.
What is an Accountability Officer responsible for?
Teaming up with the Sector Officer and managing accountability for that sector. Collect all passports from engineers, apparatus, or sector officer.
What is an Accountability Sector Officer responsible for?
Managing accountability officers and system. Causes PARs to be initiated at benchmarks and reports to Command/Safety Section.
What is Command responsible for?
Tracking and location of all crews. Advises later assigned crews which engine or Sector, or Accountability Officer is accepting Passports.
How is thermal radiation measured?
Rate of heat transferred per unit area per unit time and is expressed in watts per square centimeter or calories per square centimeter per second where 1.0 watt/cm2 equals approximately 0.24 cal/cm2/sec.
What are Hot-Wet conditions?
- Exceeding 68 and rarely exceeding 100
- Humidity above 75%
- Rain and thunderstorms regularly
What are Hot-Dry conditions?
- Exceeding 68 and regularly exceeding 100
- Humidity below 75% and commonly below 25%
- Long periods without rain
What are Cold-Wet conditions?
- Between 14 and 68
- Changes in temp and rapid thaw/freeze cycle
What are Cold-Dry conditions?
- Temps less than 14
- Dry snow
What is a Class I fire condition?
- Small fire in room
- Temps to 140 and thermal radiation up to 0.05 watts/cm2 up to 30 min
What is a Class II fire condition?
- Occurs in a room that has been totally involved after the fire has been knocked down
- Temps from 105-203
- Thermal radiation from 0.05 to 0.100 watts/cm2 for up to 15 minutes
What is a Class III fire condition?
- Totally involved room
- Temps 204 to 482
- Thermal radiation from 0.175-4.2 watts for up to 5 minutes
What is a Class IV fire condition?
- During a flashover or backdraft
- Temps 483 to 1,500
- Thermal radiation from 0.175-4.2 watts for about 10 seconds
What is the HEAT acronym?
- High heat conditions
- Exertional level of work or training, especially on subsequent days
- Acclimatization and other individual risk factors
- Time - length and exposure and recovery time
What organization provides for standard PPE for firefighters?
- OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
- Title 29 Code of Federal Regulation
- Part 1910.156 structural fires
- 1910.120 for Hazmat
- 1910.1030 for blood-borne pathogens
What organization develops standards for design and performance of protective clothing and equipment for firefighters?
- NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
- NFPA -1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting
What are the 3 layers of turnout clothing?
- Outer shell - Physical and flame protection, heavy woven fabric
- Middle layer - Moisture barrier, prevent the passing of liquids
- Inner Layer - Thermal barrier, insulation, usually two parts - woven face cloth next to body, and non-woven batting or layers that are oriented toward the moisture barrier. Must maintain "loft".
What percentage of para-aramids such as Kevlar are outer shell materials?
Weight of outer shell materials?
6-7.5 oz / square yard
Weight of moisture barrier fabrics?
3.55 grams per square meter
What are benefits of modern thermal barriers?
Non-woven batting materials entrap air for more effective insulation.
Minimum Total Heat Loss standard by NFPA 1971 in 2000?
130 watts per sq meter
Minimum Total Heat Loss standard by NFPA 1971 in 2007?
205 watts per sq meter
Minimum Total Heat Loss standard by NFPA 1971 in 2000 for wildland fire and EMS operations?
450 watts per sq meter
Features of a helmet?
- Fluorescent and retroreflective markings
- Ear covers
- Either face shield or goggles or both
What are the top two surface area to volume ratio parts of the body?
What is NFPA 1975
Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Fire and Emergency Services
What is Project FIRES?
- Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System
- Purpose is to design, fabricate, laboratory and field test integrated protective clothing ensemble
What is Project HEROES?
- Homeland Emergency Response Operational and Equipment Systems
- Next generation on structural firefighting clothing
- Protecting from CBRN, chemical, biohazard, radiation, and nuclear, as well as fire
What is the temperature range where a nude human doesn't have to compensate?
What are temperature ranges for the human body?
- Tasks become impaired below 95
- Cardiac arrest possible below 85
- Brain can suffer irreparable damage above 105
What effect will 1% of body fluid lost to dehydration have on core temperature?
Raise the core temperature by .25-.50 degrees
What will a 4% loss of fluid volume do to firefighter's performance?
Decrease by 50%
What conditions increase risk factors in high heat?
- Dehydration and salt depletion
- Lack of heat acclimitization
- Poor fitness/excess body fat
- Skin problems
- Minor illnesses
- Chronic disease
- Recent Alcohol use
- Prior heat injury
- Highly motivated people
Phenothiazines (antipsychotics - Thorazine, stelazine trilafon)
Impaired sweating, disturbed hypothalmic temp regulation
Impaired sweating, increased motor activity
Amphetamines, cocaine, ecstacy
Increase pyschomotor activity, activated vascular endothelium
Ergogenic stimulants (ephedrine/ephedra)
Increased heat production
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and water loss
Salt depletion and dehydration
Diuresis, possible effects on intestinal permeability
How long does heat acclimatization take?
- 2hrs per day for two weeks
- 50% pysiologic complete after 1 week, 80% after 2 weeks
- If no further acclimitization, retained after a week, 75% gone after 3 weeks
Three common heat illnesses?
- Heat Syncope
- Heat cramps
What is Miliaria?
- Prickly heat, acute inflamatory disease of the skin. Pores become clogged.
- Prevention - resting in cool place for portions of work cycle, bathing and drying the skin, changing into dry clothes
What is heat syncope?
- Fainting, caused by dilation of large blood vessels, less blood flow to brain
- Once supine, person usually recovers
What are heat cramps?
- Loss of electrolytes, usually affect voluntary muscles and sometimes the abdominal wall
- Saline solution, 0.1 by mouth or 0.9% by IV
What is heat exhaustion?
- Excessive sweat and inadequate hydration
- Peripheral vascular collapse and hypoperfusion of the body's organs
Symptoms of Heat exhaustion?
- Profuse sweating
- Tingling sensation in extremities
- Ashen pallor
- High systolic 130+ BP just prior, and rapid drop to normal
- Moist, cool skin
- Rapid 100-200 pulse, thready
What is heat stroke?
Inability to regulate temperature, cooling functions not working
What are symptoms of heat stroke?
- Loss of consciousness
- Skin is hot, flushed, and dry
- Wet and clammy skin in later stages
- Rectal temperatures of 106
- Respirations rapid and deep
- Normal Systolic, low diastolic
- Possible long term intolerance to heat
What temperature adjustment should you make if wearing turnouts?
- Add 10 degrees to temperature
- Monitor drills and exercise when temps above 90 and modify or suspend when above 105 degrees